Cooper on Film

  1. ------, “THE SCREEN At the Rivoli,” review signed “J. T. M.” (September 3, 1936), p. 17: 3 . “We left the Rivoli yesterday with the feeling that Reliance Pictures had played fast and loose with the favorite fictional character of our youth.” The writers dare to suggest a love story for Hawkeye and even permit Alice and Hawkeye to kiss. “They have, of course, done a grand job of bringing the high spots of the story to the screen, even if it did require technical aid from Boy Scouts to teach the modern Redskins how to whoop and holler in the accepted James Fenimore Cooper manner.” “The massacre of Fort William Henry is by far the bloodiest, scalpingest morsel of cinematic imagery ever produced, and we were consequently about ready to overlook the elisions made necessary in fitting the novel to the screen when Hollywood permitted Hawkeye to fall in love.”
  2. Rafferty, Terrence. “Brave Acts,” The New Yorker, 68 (October 5, 1992), pp. 160-161. [“In terms of plot structure, the two (films: 1936 & 1992) are very close, yet the earlier film seems all story, and the new one hardly seems to be telling a story at all. Seitz treats the material as a rattling good yarn — which in its childish way, it really is.” Mann “is trying to evoke the pity and terror of tragedy, and the insanity of this project is that he attempts to produce them by purely technical means — by graphic style, mostly.”]
  3. Saturday Review (London), Vol. 162 (October 10, 1936), p. 480.
  4. Scholastic, Vol. 29, 3 (October 3, 1936), p. 32. [“In late years it has appeared on the screen as a silent and as a serial ... this time improved by the use of sound and the elimination of the ‘see-next-week’ climaxes.” “The Young Reviewers ... agreed that the film would be best appreciated by children of 14 or less.” still of Binnie Barnes in Randolph Scott’s arms]
  5. Thomas, pp. 58-61. [adheres to the basic outlines of the novel but makes Hawkeye a little more gentlemanly; still of Hugh Buckler, Binnie Barnes, and Henry Wilcoxon, p. 59; stills of Bruce Cabot, Cora, Alice and Heyward; Uncas, Chingachgook, and Hawkeye; and two of Hawkeye, Heyward and the girls, p. 60; stills of Uncas and Cora; Hawkeye, Uncas, and Chingachgook, p. 61]
  6. Time, XXVIII, 10 (September 7, 1936), pp. 19-20. [“A danger of James Fenimore Cooper’s works as cinema material is that, without his somber prose ... they generally boil down into an antique kind of penny-dreadful. Scenarist ... worked in shifts for more than a year to keep this from happening ... Net result is an intelligent and exciting version of a story, which, properly loaded with physical action, keeps the imprint of literature.”]
  7. Van Doren, p. 340. “It is a relative inept film, with a great many incredible Indians in it and with a bulky fable which it is not always careful to keep clear.” ” ... and the American forest which he (Cooper) bequeathed to all romancers after him is undeniably here.” ” ... and the death of the Colonel at Fort William Henry is a human event ... ”
  8. Variety, review signed “Wear.” (September 9, 1936), p. 16. [“The James Fenimore Cooper historical fiction story is transferred to the screen with surprising fidelity, though the two love stories are accentuated, quite naturally, for screen purposes.” “Randolph Scott is superbly typed as the colonial scout.” “Possibly his (Henry Wilcoxon) most sterling contribution in American films.” Binnie Barnes ... further enhances her reputation as a fascinating actress.” “Robert Barrat ... and Phillip Reed rate principal laurels.” “Bruce Cabot is ... too much of the pale-face villain.” “Photography uniformly strong.”
  9. Wheaton, p. 70. [script by Philip Dunne and John L. Balderston housed at the University of Southern CA]
  10. Winter, Alice Ames, “Two Great Pictures You’ll Like,” Saint Nicholas, Vol. 63 (September 1936), p. 29. [There are betrayals, border warfare, hair-breadth escapes, cunning ruses, just as there really were in those adventurous days. still of Randolph Scott, Robert Barret and Phillip Reed]
  11. World Film News , Vol. 1 (November 1936), “Review of Reviews,” p. 18.

1947 “The Last of the Redmen”

Columbia Pictures, Viticolor, 78 minutes, directed by George Sherman, produced by Sam Katzman. Larry “Buster” Crabbe played Magua, Jon Hall as Maj. Heyward, Evelyn Ankers as Alice Munro, Jacqueline Wells (Julie Bishop) as Cora, Michael O’Shea as Hawk-Eye, Rick Vallin as Uncas, Robert “Buzz” Henry as Davy, Guy Hedlund as Gen. Munro, Frederick Worlock as Gen. Webb, Emmett Vogan as Bob Wheelwright, and Chief Many Treaties. .

Synopsis: Story line has Heyward traveling with a British General’s two daughters and a 12 year old son (Davy) to Lake George. Magua tells Gen. Webb that the French are attacking from the South. (This scene gives the rational for the daughter’s heading for Fort William Henry which is not provided in any other film nor in the book) Hawkeye leads the group after Magua leads them astray. They abandon their horses and baggage and are chased down the river to an island where they hide in a cave. Hawkeye and Uncas go for help, and the group is captured. Hawkeye and Uncas rescue them, and they hide in an abandoned cabin. As they approach the fort, the defeated column is leaving and is attacked by the Indians. Monro is shot; Uncas kills Magua and although mortally wounded rides for help; Alice screams, runs out and is stabbed; the cavalry arrives and saves the survivors; the film ends with Hawkeye standing by Uncas’ grave. The scenario took many liberties: Hawkeye talked in a thick Irish brogue; Chingachgook was dropped as a character; Davy was added for juvenile box office draw; danger was more often invited than avoided. The picture’s only distinction was that it was in color.

  1. Garfield, p. 210. [“Its only advantage over the 1936 Randolph Scott version is that this one’s in better color.”]
  2. Maltin, p. 757. [“OK adaptation...”]
  3. New York Times , review signed “T. M. P.” (August 30, 1947), 8: 6. “It all ends in due time, with a screen full of dead Indians and decapitated British colonials. Some fun, eh! Go to it kids and squirm with excitement the way we once use to do on Saturday afternoon. And don’t be too harsh on the actors — they are really nice people, trying hard to make a living.”
  4. Variety, “Miniature Reviews” (July 16, 1947). [Columbia , color (Vitacolor), “Okay, summer fare”]
  5. ------, “Last of the Redmen,” signed “Brog.” (July 16, 1947). [“Jon Hall and Michael O’Shea wear the characters ... with an uneasy air, but will get by with the kiddies anyway.” “More suited is Buster Crabbe as the treacherous Iroquois Indian Magua. Because of the presence of Crabbe and Hall, there are several swimming and water battle sequences tossed in for action touch.” ‘ Femmes have little to do.”]
  6. Walker, John. [“Tinpot rendition of The Last of the Mohicans.”]

1948 “The Return of the Mohicans”

[the 1932 serial condensed into a feature-length film]

1957 “Hawkeye and the Last of the Mohicans”

Thirty-nine [30 minute] episodes; syndicated TV series (Fall 1957-Summer 1958), directed by Sam Neufield and Sidney Salkow; producer: Sigmund Neufeld; writers: Andre Boehm, Louis Vittes; made-in-Canada telefilm with John Hart as Nat Cutter [Hawkeye], Lon Chaney, Jr. as Chingachgook, Michael Ansara as Ogana, Lili Fontaine as Marion, Dave Garner as Tommy Cutter (Hawkeye’s brother), and John Vernon.

Synopsis: Story line is about the founding and growth of America in the 1750’s as seen through the adventures of U. S. Cavalry Scouts Nat Cutter [Hawkeye] and Chingachgook as they help pioneers battle the Huron uprisings.

  1. Erickson, p. 29. [“Hawkeye was taken as far as possible from the works of James Fenimore Cooper. John Hart, who’d demonstrated his utter lack of star quality when he briefly replaced Clayton Moore on The Loan Ranger, kept his record intact in the role of the 18ᵗʰ-century frontiersman Hawkeye.” “His Indian chum Chingachgook was played by Lon Chaney Jr., and you know you’re in trouble with a series in which Lon Chaney Jr. is the best actor.” Despite this “Hawkeye was one of TPA’s strongest ‘57 properties, its 26 episodes drawing fans from all viewer age groups.”]
  2. Gianakos, 1975-1980, p. 372-373. [lists the 39 titles and their viewing dates for the first ABC-TV New York telecast of “Hawkeye and the Last of the Mohicans”]
  3. Johnson, R., “Hawkeye,” TV Guide, (August 3, 1957), p. 23. [“Hawkeye and the Last of the Mohicans is a trite, syndicated serial beamed at viewers of an age to snag their mamas into buying a certain kind of bread. It comes on ... between Sky King and Wild Bill Hickock and in content is indistinguishable from them. Both (John Hart and Lon Chaney) walk through their cardboard roles with all the posturing skill of old hands at this sort of comic-strip entertainment.” still of Lon Chaney]
  4. Lentz, pp. 1630-1631. [lists titles and dates of production; some additional cast listed for selected programs]
  5. Vahimagi, Tise, p. 65. [still of John Hart and Lon Chaney, Jr.]

1962 Four TV Movies

International Television Corporation, distributed to TV four TV movies: “Along the Mohawk Trail,” “The Red Man and the Renegades,” “The Long Rifle and the Tomahawk,” and “The Pathfinder and the Mohican” based on the 1957 “Hawkeye and the Last of the Mohicans” television series; John Hart played Hawkeye, Lon Chaney, Jr. as Chingachgook, and Angela Fusco.

1964 “The Pathfinder and the Mohican”

90 minute, black & white telefeature, directed by Sam Newfield with Jon Hall, Lon Chaney, Jr., Jonathan White, Angela Fusco, and Larry Solway.

Synopsis: Story line has Delaware Indians falsely accused of various crimes against settlers. Hawkeye and Chingachgook attempt to prove the truth.

1965 “Der Letzte Mohikaner”

[The Last of the Mohicans] German-Italian-Spanish independent production; released by International Germania Film; 90 minutes (West Germany); directed by Harald Reinl; camera: Ernst Kalinke; music: Peter Thomas; with Italian Western star Anthony Steffen (Antonio De Teffe) as “Strongheart” (Leatherstocking), Dan Martín as the Last of the Mohicans (Unkas), Carl Lange as Col. Munroe, Karin Dor as Cora, Marie France as Alice Munroe, Joachim Fuchsberger as Maj. Hayward and Ricardo Rodriguez, Stelio Candelli, Kurt Grobkurth, and Angel Ter.

  • 1965 “La Valle delle ombre rosse [The Valley in Red Shadow],” (Italian title).
  • 1965 “The Last Tomahawk,” (American title of “Der Letzte Mohikaner”)

Synopsis: “Sauerkraut Western” story based on the Leatherstocking Tales: De Teffe and Martin save Lange and his two daughters: Karin Dor and Marie France]

  1. Hardy p. 291. “Although officially based on The Last of the Mohicans, as one might expect from Reinl, the director most closely associated with the Winnetou series of Westerns, the film owes much more to Karl May than James Fenimore Cooper. In common with all the Winnetou films, the novel is composed mosaic-like with narrative pace, rather than motivation, joining together the action set-pieces.” “ ... the name change from Leatherstocking is perhaps the clearest indication of just how much Cooper’s character is seen through the lens of May’s far more intense romanticism.” ” ... Reinl concentrates on the action sequences, the most notable of which is a splendid avalanche.”

1965 “Uncas, el fin de una raza”

[Uncas, the End of a Race], Ital Caribe Cinematografica (Spain/Italy), 85 minutes; directed by Matteo Cano; written by Alain Baudry; cinematography by Carlo Carlini; original music by Bruno Canfora. Cast included: Jack Taylor as Duncan Heywood, Luis Induni as Hawkeye, Dan Martin as Lucan, Paul Muller as Col. Munro, Sara Lezana, Barbara Loy, José Manuel Martin, Pastor Serrador.

  • 1965 “L’Ultimo dei Mohicani,” (Italy/Spain/West Germany). Directed by Matteo Cano.
  • 1965 “El Ultimo mohicano,” 92 minutes (Spanish title). Directed by Matteo Cano.

1969 “Die Lederstrumpferzaählungen”

[The Leatherstocking Tales] Mini TV series, color, language: French; directed by Jean Dréville, Pierre Gaspard-Huit; cast; Hellmut Lange as Natty Bumppo, Pierre Massimi as Chingagook, Alexandru David as Unkas, Sophie Agacinski as Judith Hutter, Otto Ambros as Oberst (Col.)Munro, Robert Benoit as Paul Hover, Jack Brunet as Duncan Heyward, J.P. Compain as Weucha, Marc Cottel as Tamenund, George Demetru as Ismael Bush, Ion Dischiseanu as Mathoree, Christian Duroc as Jasper, G. Florin as Kawano, Roland Ganemet as David Gamut, Gabriel Bason as Dr. Battius, Loumi Lacobesco as Cora, Catherine Jourdan as Ellen Wade, Jackie Lombard as Wah-ta-wah, Sylvie Maas-Lebot as Alice, Victoria Medea as Esther Bush, Charles Moulin as Muir, Mircea Pascu as Abiram Bush, Patrick Peuvion as Harry March, Ali Raffi as Magua, Colea Rautu as Gespaltene Eiche (Split Oak), Helmuth Schneider as Miles Forman, Czach Szabolcs as Pfeilspitze (Arrowpoint), Juliette Villard as Mable, and Thekla Carola Wied as Hetty Hutter.

  • 1969 “Bas de Cuir” [“Leather Stocking” also known as “Légende de Bas de Cuir”], TV series, with Hellmut Lange as Natty Bumppo [Bas de cuir and Oeil de faucon], and Pierre Massimi as Chingagook, Alexandru David as Unkas.

1969 “Ultimul Mohican”

[The Last of the Mohicans] (Romania), directed by Jean Dréwille, Pierre Gaspard-Huit, and Sergui Nicolaescu. Cast: Hellmut Lange, Pierre Massimi, Alexandru David, Sybil Mass, Otto Ambros, Luminita Labescu, and Jacques Brinet.

1971 “Last of the Mohicans”

BBC-TV, directed by David Maloney, produced by John McRae, written by Harry Green, 8 episodes (45 minutes), filmed in the Scottish Highlands with Kenneth Ives as Hawkeye, John Abinieri as Chingachgook, Richard Warwick as Uncas, and Philip Madoc as Magua, Joanna David as Alice Munroe, Patricia Maynard as Cora Munroe, . [fairly faithful to Fenimore Cooper novel]

  1. Vahimagi, Tise, p. 197. “A handsome production of J. Fenimore Cooper’s Leatherstocking tales shot by the BBC in the west of Scotland.” [aired on BBC: 1,17/1-7/3/1971; still of Kenneth Ives as Hawkeye and John Abinieri as Chingachgok]

1972 “The Last of the Mohicans”

WNET Masterpiece Theater, BBC Television eight-part serial, filmed in the Scottish Highhlands with Alistair Cooke as host. Tim Goodman played Heyward, Philip Madoc as Magua, Patricia Maynard as Cora, Joanna David as Alice, Andrew Crawford as Col. Munro, Noel Coleman as Gen. Webb, Prentis Hancock as Grant, David Leland as David Gamut, John Abinieri as Chingachgook, Richard Warwick as Uncas and Kenneth Ives as Hawkeye.

Synopsis: Story line has Heyward at Fort Edward requesting aid for Munro. Magua leads the girls, Heyward, and another soldier into an ambush. Hawkeye leads the survivors to an island cave. After a fight, the Indians capture the girls and Heyward. Hawkeye has gone for help. Hawkeye and the Mohicans helped by Gamut rescue the group and barely get them to the fort. Hawkeye and the Mohicans are captured, tortured, and saved by Montcalm. The final scene at a waterfall has Uncas jumping down (and missing) Magua who kills him; another Indian stabs Cora; Magua kills him and fights Chingachgook. Magua is thrown down the waterfall. Cora and Uncas are buried, and Hawkeye proclaims his friendship to Chingachgook. They depart together.

  1. Freedman, Richard, “The Last of the Mohicans,” TV Guide (March 25, 1972), pp. 39- 40. [historical background piece to help the viewer enjoy and understand the serial]
  2. TV Guide (March 26, 1972), “Close Up,” p. A-34 (Sunday, Chapter 1), p. 40, Monday afternoon showing). [the adventure opens in 1757 against a backdrop of the French and Indian War. Plots and subplots are laid at Fort William Henry]

1973 “Hawkeye, The Pathfinder”

20ᵗʰ Century Fox TV and ABC TV, produced by John McRae, directed by David Maloney, dramatized by Allan Prior and Alistair Bell, five part serial (55 min. episodes) with Paul Massie as Hawkeye and John Abinieri as Chingachgook. [produced 1-18/11-16/12/1973]

1977 “Last of the Mohicans”

Shick Sunn Classics /NBC-TV, color, 100 minutes [when syndicated: 90 minutes], directed by James L. Conway, producer: Robert Stambler, teleplay: Stephen Lord. Steve Forrest played Hawkeye, Ned Romero as Chingachgook, Andrew Prine as Maj. Heyward, Don Shanks as Uncas, Robert Tessier as Magua, Jane Actman as Alice Morgan, Michele March as Cora, Robert Easton as David Gamut, Whit Bissell as Gen. Webb, with Dehl Berti, John G. Bishop, Beverly Rowland, Rosalyn Mike, Reid Sorenson, and Coleman Lord.

Synopsis: Story line has Hawkeye, Chingachgook, and Uncas helping Maj. Heyward escort Cora and Alice to their father. Magua and his Huron warriors are the determents. The group is captured and saved. There are long fight scenes and a chase on the lake. At Tamenund’s village Cora is given to Magua who takes her to a high promontory. The rescuers arrive. Chingachgook kills Magua in hand-to-hand combat after Uncas, sacrificing himself to save Cora, is shot by Magua. There are no scenes of the surrender at the fort nor of the massacre; Cora is permitted to live, but David Gamut is killed.

  1. Marrill, p. 238. [A “Classics Illustrated” version of the adventure tale. The two-hour production was subsequently cut to 90 minutes.]
  2. Movies on TV (1986). [“Do you need another inferior Hawkeye and his Indian Friends?”]
  3. Sarf, Wayne Michael. God Bless You, Buffalo Bill A Layman’s Guide to History and the Western Film. East Brunswick, NJ: Associated University Presses and Cornwall Books, 1983, p. 192. [Cooper’s hero Natty Bumppo always refused to take scalps on the ground that God had intended the custom for “another race” and not whites like himself. In an un-Cooperian fashion, Steve Forrest as Hawkeye tells Maj. Heywood that scalping started in Europe. “Bone up on your history, Major.”]
  4. TV Movies (1986). [“Sturdy ... with Forrest fine as the stalwart Hawkeye. Above average.”]
  5. Parish & Pitts, p. 185. [still of Steve Forrest and Don Shanks, p. 186]

1977 “The Last of the Mohicans”

Full length cartoon, Hanna-Barbera Studio, 1988, 1976; 1 videocassette (49 min.), sound/color, ½ inch format; adaptation: Lewis Draper; animated motion picture, animation director: Chris Cuddington; camera: Jan Cregan; voices of Mike Road, Casey Kasem, John Doucette, Joan Van Ark, John Stephenson, Kristina Holland, Paul Hecht, and Frank Welker.

Synopsis: Story line has Magua leading the girls and Heyward. They meet Hawkeye, Uncas and Chingachgook on the trail. Uncas chases Magua away. They leave the horses and enter canoes. Stopping at an island for the night, they stay in a cave. Chingachgook gives Alice his necklace. Hawkeye and Uncas swim for help. Alice has a little dog (Pip) which yips, and they are captured. Hawkeye and Uncas to the rescue. Chingachgook and Magua plunge over a cliff. Arriving at the fort they find it burned and empty. That night Uncas and the two girls are captured. Uncas and Alice are saved from the stake by the necklace Alice is wearing. Hawkeye, Heyward, and Cora run from Magua and his Indians, but Uncas and the Delawares put the Indians to route. At Fort Ticonderoga, Munro greets his daughters, Hawkeye and Uncas. Hawkeye returns to the woods. Uncas, the last of the Mohicans, leaves to find other Mohicans and build a tribe. Alice and Pip run after him, and they all ride off together.

1987 “The Last of the Mohicans”

Videorecording, Burbank Films Australia, Northbrook, IL: Film Ideas, 1987, 1 videocassette (50 minutes) sound/color, 2 inch VHS format. [animated; music: Simon Walker; screenplay: Leonard Lee]

Synopsis: Story line has Chingachgook and Uncas surrounded by Hurons. His father is killed, but Uncas is saved by Hawkeye. Magua leads Heyward and the girls; they rest for the night; Hawkeye catches Heyward off guard; tell the truth about Magua. Next day they set off; Hawkeye scouting ahead; party is captured again; Hawkeye saves party. Raft takes them to cave; Hawkeye and Uncas go for help; party is captured; Uncas asks Tamenund for help; they capture Magua and prisoners; Magua slips away and they get to the fort. Capt. Washington wants to surrender and fight another day and Munro agrees. The women leave and are captured. Uncas and Hawkeye are captured; all are to be burned at the stake. Tamenund arrives; Magua and Uncas fight high on a cliff; Magua fall to his death. Montcalm’s troops save them. Tamenund admonishes Uncas and Hawkeye to work for peace between peoples.

1992 “Last of the Mohicans”

20ᵗʰ Century Fox, Michael Mann, Director, Rated R. Screenplay by M. Mann and Christopher Crowe also based on 1936 United Artists’ version by Philip Dunne. Cast: Daniel Day-Lewis played Hawkeye (Nathaniel Poe), Madeleine Stowe as Cora Munro, Jodhi May as Alice Munro, Eric Schweig as Uncas, Steven Waddington as Maj. Heyward, Russell Means as Chingachgook, Cherokee actor Wes Studi as Magua, Maurice Roëves as Col. Munro, Patrice Chereau as Gen. Montcalm, Terry Kiney as John Cameron, Justin M. Rice as James Cameron, Tracey Ellis as Alexandra Cameron, Edward Blatchford as Jack Winthrop, American Indian Movement co-founder Dennis Banks in a small part as Ongewasgone, Pete Postlethwaite as Capt. Beams, Colm Meaney as Maj. Ambrose, Mac Andrews as Gen. Webb, Malcom Storry as Phelps, David Schofield as Sgt. Maj., Eric Sandgren as Coureuu de Bois, Mike Phillips as Sachem, Mark Baker as Colonial Man, Dylan Baker as Bougainville, Tim Hopper as Ian, Gregory Zaragoza as Abenaki Chief, Scott Means as Abenaki Warrior, William Bozic, Jr. As French Artillery officer, Patrick Fitzgerald as Webb’s Adjutant, Mark Joy as Henri, Steve Keator as Colonial Representative, Don Tilley as 1ˢᵗ Colonial, Thomas Cummings as 2ⁿᵈ Colonial, David Farrow as Guard, Ethan Fugate as French Sappeur, F. Curtis Gaston as 1ˢᵗ Soldier, Eric A. Hurley as 2ⁿᵈ Soldier, Jared Harris as British Lt., Michael McConnel as Sentry, Thomas McGowan as the Rich Merchant, Alice Papineau as Huron Woman, Mark Maracle as Sharitarish, Clark Heathcliffe as Regimental Sgt. Maj., Sebastian Roche as Martin, Joe Finnegan as 2ⁿᵈ Redcoat, and Sheila Barhill as the Humming Woman.

Synopsis: Story line has Cora and Alice escorted by Duncan Heyward to the Fort under siege by the French. An ambush leaves the trio unprotected and Hawkeye, his adopted father and brother lead them to the Fort. Hawkeye and Maj. Heyward love Cora, and Uncas loves Alice. After the fall of the Fort and the massacre comes the chase and capture. At the Indian encampment, Heyward offers his life for the girls [preempting Hawkeye’s offer], and Magua leaves with Alice. Hawkeye shoots the screaming Heyward as he is being burned to death. There is an action packed finale on a majestic ridge where Alice commits suicide rather than be with Magua; Uncas tries to avenge her death, but is killed by Magua; and Chingachgook revenges his son by killing Magua.

James Fenimore Cooper did not predict that his book would become a classic, but time has proven its endurance. Michael Mann’s expressed great confidence in his film when he commented, “It’s going to be a classic.” History will determine the enduring appellation. To date reviews of the film have not yet bestowed classic status upon the forty million dollar plus movie version.

The largest movie set ever built east of the Mississippi was the six million dollar reconstruction of Fort William Henry. On a bluff overlooking Lake James, between Marion and Morganton North Carolina, the 160,000 square foot fort was a virtual museum of frontier America. Medicine jars of the period, blackened cooking pots, and stacked muskets attested to the attention paid to historical accuracy. Most of the props: handmade uniforms and shoes, birchbark canoes, and woven baskets were made by local craftspeople.

Mr. Mann felt that Linville Gorge gave him the perfect backdrop for shooting scenes in the wilderness of 18ᵗʰ century New York. The rugged country challenged the construction crews. Moving heavy equipment and hundreds of cast members in the mountains only to be rained out or to have the director change his mind proved to be frustrating and costly. The company closed out its 6 month filming in the mountains six weeks behind schedule due to heavy rains throughout the summer of 1991. Cost over runs of $20,000 an hour during shooting were not uncommon. By October the budget had exceeded forty million dollars. When the film was completed, the production company was required by law to restore the area.

Mann fired his first cinematographer and the costume designer. The hair stylist quit. The film was plagued by nearly a dozen wildcat work stoppages: initially by American Indians (Russell Means helped negotiate improved working conditions and exempts Mann from any blame for the problems) and then by local extras. The 2000 extras protested poor pay, and wanted better working and living conditions. Director Mann was quoted as saying that laying “dead” on the damp and rocky ground for hours without breaks for multiple retakes was normal on location shooting. Extras outside of Hollywood “don’t know what to expect.” North Carolina’s right-to-work law, permits non-union employees to work for a company that has a union contract. The result of making the film in NC rather that in NY or CA saved the production company a small fortune. Rather than paying union wages and benefits, local workers had to individually negotiate with the company. The company kept individual contracts secret, and no one knew [unless employees shared with each other] what anyone else was earning. Pay ranged from $4 to $15 a hour. Housing, quality of meals, and transportation also varied with negotiation.

American, French, and Iroquois-Delaware were used for dialogue in the film.

  1. Abramowitz, Rachel & John H. Premiere, Vol. 5, 10 (June 1992), p. 100. [authors predict this film will be top draw; still of Daniel Day-Lewis running, p.97]
  2. ------ et al. Ibid, Vol. 6, 2 (October 1992), p. 102. [May be too sophisticated and too violent for the Robin Hood audience. Miami Vice in buckskin.]
  3. Alleva, Richard. “Smoke on the Horizon `Mohicans’ & `Dracula,’” Commonweal, Vol. 119, 22 (December 18, 1992), pp. 16-17. [“There is one pop song used on the soundtrack ... and it’s momentarily disastrous.” ” ... immediate and elegiac, gorgeous to look at but not embalmed by its own beautiful photography, full of chases, hand-to-hand combat and “hair-breath scapes in the imminent deadly breach,” yet not lacking in contemplative passages ... ” Mann has made an adventure film that haunts as well as excites.”]
  4. Ansen, David. Newsweek, “Mann in the Wilderness,” Vol. 120, 13 (September 28, 1992), pp. 48-49. [“His gorgeous Last of the Mohicans gets off to a bumpy start, gathers feeling and momentum and comes roaring into the home-stretch at full gallop.” Mann did his homework: he ” ... can expound at length on the colors and patterns of each tribe’s war paints.” Mann and Day-Lewis spent a month in the forests ” ... learning the skills and tools needed to survive in the 18ᵗʰ-century wilderness.” stills of Day-Lewis in action; Stowe as Cora; Mann with Waddington and Hawkeye]
  5. The Arizona Republic, “Soda Water and Sci-FI, Currier & Ives and Nudist Camps” (November 1, 1992), p. E 1. [“1823 - John Wayne gets his first role, when James Fenimore Cooper publishes Pioneers. Wayne, Gary Cooper, and even Clint Eastwood would not have been possible without Cooper’s Leatherstocking tales, including The Last of the Mohicans.”]
  6. Arnold, Gary. “Mann and Myth,” Washington (D.C.)Times (September 20, 1992). [Mann’s LOM is discussed; the 1936 version was “probably one of the first films I ever saw,” Mr. Mann says. “It made an impression on me. I think it must have been similar to the way the original historical events had left an impression on Cooper, reconstructing them 75 years later.” For Cooper fans the most noticeable change may be the hero’s name: Nathaniel Poe. Madeleine Stowe admits, “There were days when you felt so lost amid 700 or 800 extras, with seven cameras planted all over the place to capture a vast scene. Michael will not roll the cameras until he feels everything is totally right. He’s far and away the most exacting director I’ve ever worked with ... “]
  7. ------ . “Indian Actors Cheering for the Bad Guy,” Washington Times (September 28, 1992). [” ... Wes Studi and Russell Means ... evidently prefer “Indian” (to Native American) and use the term without apology.” “It’s more than a little ironic that what both find so positive is the dynamic nastiness of Mr. Studi’s Magua ... The ‘bad’ Indian has good reasons to be bad. “For the first time in cinematic history the so-called ‘bad’ Indian has character development and is portrayed as intellectually superior to his non-Indian counterpart, a French general.”]
  8. Barker and Sabin, pp. 108-120. [a running account of the scenes (pp. 109-113); disparate reviews; modes of filming; images in mythmaking; different forms of the myth the Mohicans films have proposed]
  9. Berger, Arion. “Hawkeye and Hot Lips Michael Mann’s Romance with History,” La Weekly (October 2-October 8, 1992), pp. 33. [“As an amoral and anti-political period piece, deeply invested in the futility of war, the movie’s brute splendor is all the more moving because it’s so extravagantly doomed.” ” ... Mohicans captures its historical moment — the dissolution of Indian tribes that played by the settlers’ rules and lost, and the stirrings of Revolutionary fervor and female emancipation.” “Day-Lewis moves and stands and speaks like a man who can reload and fire a flintlock at full run (as Mann claims he can);” “Mann has created a rigorously beautiful film that rewrites our vision of history.” still of Daniel Day-Lewis as Hawkeye]
  10. Bernard, Jami. New York Post (September 25, 1992), p. 23. [“The new Michael Mann version makes clear what fusty old Cooper couldn’t — that “Mohicans” is a ripe, heady romance.” “Even if you’ve read the book, you wont know what in tarnation they’re talking about ... ” “Premiere magazine writer Cyndi Stivers noted during the press screening, Cora’s lip liner stayed perfect even through the massacre scene.” “The Last of the Mohicans” stirs the blood with its scenes of wild natural beauty, youthful idealism and fated passions. But wait — here comes the swelling score again, the theme music for the Daniel Day-Lewis, bare-chested 100-yard dash!”]
  11. Blake, Richard A. “Hair Apparent,” America, Vol. 167, 16 (November 21, 1992), pp. 407-408. [“It is a festival of style and spectacle that entertains, even hypnotizes, while the narrative offers little more than an excuse for some extraordinary and extremely violent action sequences.” “The music by Trevor Jones and Randy Edelman offers the same intensity (as the rock beat of “Miami Vice”), which at times detracts from the images on the screen.” ” ... the inconsistent switching from Gielgud English to Lauder Scottish to Dolly Parton American all within a single scene, can be disconcerting.” “The last combat ... is raised to mythic scale ... (it) becomes a war of ... good and evil, civilization and wilderness, (a) battle for supremacy in this dangerous and wonderful world.” ” ... a film that respects the ambiguities of American’s myths and history, is a true delight.”]
  12. Bonham, Kevin. “Wanted: Indian Actors,” Grand Forks (N.D.) Herald (February 16, 1991). [“Native Americans at Fort Totten Indian Reservation will try out for roles next week in a remake of the movie, “The Last of the Mohicans.” The actors “are suppost to be at least 6 feet tall,with good physiques and in good physical condition. Those who win parts will have to take a three-week survival training course ... The actors have to be willing to cut their hair for the filming, possibly in the Mohawk style ... ” “This might be their big chance.”]
  13. Brady, James, “Instep with Madeleine Stowe,” Parade Magazine, (September 6, 1992), p. 30. [still of M. Stowe; as the daughter of a British officer she “falls in love with Hawkeye, though in the book she falls for Uncas, the noble Indian.”]
  14. Britton, Bonnie. “Frontier Romance is at the Heart of Beautiful, Brutal ‘Mohicans’,” Indianapolis (IN) Star (September 25, 1992). [The Last of the Mohicans is mostly entertaining, intense, fast-paced, crisply filmed by cinematographer Dante Spinotti and convincing in its attention to costume and set detail, though short on plot and eager to fall back on Hollywood convention.” “Daniel Day-Lewis is ... Tarzan in buckskins ... ” Most startling, and refreshing, is the portrayal of the Indians.]
  15. Cartright, Bob. “The Last of the Mohicans,” Wichita (KS) Eagle (September 25, 1992). [“Russell Means is such an activist ... if he went along with this movie then they did it right.” Article quotes high school students opinions and the Director of the Indian Center]
  16. Cohen, Lawrence, ‘Mohican’ pow ‘Ducks’ fine ‘Hero’ wimpy,” Variety (October 12, 1992), p. 12. [“The Last of the Mohicans stood off new competition handily to repeat by a wide margin as top film in North America for the second week in a row. The Daniel Day Lewis starrer took $12.8 million at 1800 sites...”]
  17. Comer, Brooke. “Last of the Mohicans: Interpreting Cooper’s Classic,” American Cinematographer, Vol. 73, 12 (December 1, 1992), pp. 30-34. [director of photography Dante Spinotti describes working with Michael Mann and coordinating and shooting some of the challenging scenes; four stills]
  18. Denby, David. “Indian Bummer,” New York, Vol. 25, 38 (September 28, 1992), pp. 59-60. [still: Daniel Day-Lewis as Hawkeye; “Half of the time, we don’t know what is going on or why any of it matters.” [“We may be witnessing the birth of a new genre: the opaquely violent historical action film.” “The Last of the Mohicans is bloody and baffling ... bogged down in narrative swamps ... surely, Michael Mann . ... knows how to tell a story — that’s what make me think the incoherence is possibly intentional.” “Mann and co-writer Christopher Crowe have imagined his speech well, dropping Cooper’s notorious fustian dialogue and devising for Hawkeye a simple and direct American language ... ” “The movie is a piece of design ... and makes little dramatic sense. Mann sees everything visually — as an effect. He loads these effect one atop the other as the movie grandly - but not, I would guess, commercially — slips through his fingers.”]
  19. Dubner, S. J. New York, Vol. 25, 36 (September 14, 1992), p. 52. [Hollywood, it seems, has rediscovered the great American novel.]
  20. Ebert, Roger. “`Mohicans’ Captures Frontier Adventure,” Chicago (IL) Sun Times (September 25, 1992). [Mann’s film is quite an improvement on Cooper’s all but unreadable book, and a worthy successor to the Randolph Scott version.]
  21. Engel, Joel. “A Fort, a War and the Last Thousand or So Mohicans,” The New York Times, Vol. 142, 49 (September 20, 1992), p. H9, 12(NY & L), Sec. 2, Col. 1, 32 column inches. [two stills: Fort William Henry and Michael Mann on the set; “Working from period drawings and plans of the wooden fort that was erected by the British in 1775 ... the film makers took nearly three months to build a 300 by 400 foot replica ... ” “The film makers also created the colonial village of Albany, a 20 acre farmstead and a Huron village ... ” Philip Haythornthwaite, an expert on British military history, was called in to advise on British uniforms and weapons. David Webster, a wilderness survival trainer, gave the actors lessons in 18ᵗʰ century military techniques.” “The look of the various Indian tribes was meticulously researched, down to haircuts and body paint. But coming up with accurate Indian dialogue proved more difficult.” The Mohawks spoke Iroquois. The Hurons spoke Wyandot a now-defunct language. The Mohican language has also died out. Actors playing Mohicans (including Daniel Day-Lewis) spoke Munsee Delaware, the closest remaining dialect. In the Huron village, many extras spoke Onondaga. Wes Studi (Magua) spoke mostly Mohawk, “although he occasionally reverted to his native Cherokee.” “Daniel Day-Lewis is one of four guys in America who can reload a flintlock rifle at a full run ... ” “Mr. Mann says he intended `The Last of the Mohicans’ to be more faithful to history than to Cooper’s novel” “There were probably 1,200 Mohicans alive in 1757.” “If you were living on the frontier in 1757, the Mohawks were your rich neighbors. They were not some group of manservants.” “The film errs in showing the retreating soldiers leaving with their ammunition, which the French in fact confiscated.” Although in the book and in the film it looks like the whole British army was massacred, only 185 people died; the rest were taken captive.]
  22. Fuller, Graham. “Shots in the Dark,” Interview, 22, 10 (October 1992), p. 88. [still of Wes Studi as Magua; ” ... has reworked Cooper’s plot so that the famous interlude in the caves at Glens Falls follows, rather than precedes, the Huron atrocities at the fort, while hardening the conflict between Hawkeye ... and the reactionary redcoat Major Heyward as they vie for the affections of Cora.” “Maybe it is a subtlety, but it’s shot from inside Mohican culture.” “That worldview goes some way toward making the “noble savages” of Cooper book nobler — or at least more realistic — than any film has made them seem before.”]
  23. ------. Interview, 22,12 (December 1992), p. 53. [rated LOM in top 10 films of the year]
  24. Gerosa, Melina. “Into the Woods,” Entertainment Weekly, 133 (August 28, 1992), p. 16. [describes production details]
  25. Gleiberman, Owen. “Native Son,” Ibid, 137 (September 25, 1992), pp. 38, 39, 42. [“Michael Mann’s fierce and beautiful adaptation ... has scenes of brutal physical power that hold you in thrall.” “The center of the movie, however, feels a little unoccupied.” “Hawkeye barely seems in the movie ... his Hawkeye is a kind of long-haired Zen Boy Scout.” “Mann ... is a master of violence and lyrical anxiety. There’s a fight on the edge of a cliff that attains a spooky, almost hallucinatory quality ... And Mann has created a great villain in Magua,” “Hawkeye may be the hero ... but by the end of the movie it’s Magua’s malevolent passion that burns brightest.” Still of Daniel Day-Lewis and his adoptive family as they face their foes.]
  26. ------. Ibid, (October 16, 1992), p. 56. [most powerful and enthralling sound tracks in years. The music fuses the action, lending the entire sequence the heightened clarity of a dream.]
  27. Gliatto, Tom. “His barefoot: in ‘Last of the Mohicans’ Daniel Day-Lewis Shows the world he’s got Sex Appeal, too.” People Weekly, 38, 9 (November 9, 1992), p. 69-71. [“Day-Lewis doesn’t simply disappear into these roles; he obsessively sinks himself into them.” stills: Lewis “immensely concentrated — fearless. He will do and try anything;” age 11 with his parents; Hawkeye; palsied artist Christy Brown; A “Hawkeye” at his LA. premiere]
  28. Hackett, Larry (New York Daily News). “Less than Saints, More than Savages,” Kansas City Star ( October 23, 1992), pp. H-4 & H-10. [photo of Russell Means as Chingachgook; “’Mohicans’ co-star Russell Means is proud of its accurate depiction of Native Americans.”]
  29. Hajari, Nisid, Entertainment Weekly, 137 (September 25, 1992), p. 39. [Chief Gertinemong, life time chief of the Mohegans and a direct descendent of Uncas, indicates that 907 Mohegans survive today – approximately 300 of them around Mohegan. CT. Uncas was really the first of the Mohegans as he lead a rebellion against the Pequot leader Sassacus in the early 17ᵗʰ century. There were no Mohegan’s chosen for the film. Mohegan Indians comment on film’s accuracy]
  30. Harkness, John. “White Noise,” Sight and Sound (UK), Vol. 2, 7 (November 1992), p. 15. [In Mann’s hands, The Last of the Mohicans is less a blueprint for the rejection of white civilization than an attempt to give us in the 90’s a new birth of a white culture that respects the individuality of other cultures, at least to the point where we can regret their destruction.]
  31. Hettrick, Scott. “Letterbox format suits ‘Mohicans’ epic just fine,” The Kansas City Star (March 12, 1993), p. G-12. [Fox videorecording ($94.98) has black bands at top and bottom of TV screen; ” ... a wilderness episode of ‘Miami Vice.’” “The hard-to-swallow character modernization aside, this is a beautifully filmed action adventure that is a lot of fun.”]
  32. Hoberman, J. “Born To Be Wild,” Village Voice, Vol. 37, 39 (September 29, 1992), p. 55. [” ... Mann’s lavish new adaptation is a work of blithe disregard.” “The Last of the Mohicans is as much romantic swashbuckler as proto-western.” “The set pieces are often masterful.” “Day-Lewis is too sexy, too social.” ]
  33. Hooper, Joseph. “Mann & Mohican,” Esquire, Vol. 118, 1 (July 1992), p. 19. [still of Mann, Means, and Banks; Means quoted discussing acting]
  34. Horn, John. “Last of Mohicans is Top Film Again,” Chicago Tribune (October 9, 1992), p. L. [“For the second week in a row, ‘The Last of the Mohicans’ was the nation’s favorite film, earning $9.7 million at the box office.”]
  35. Howe, Desson, “Hair-Praising Adventure,” Washington Post (September 25, 1992). p. N43. [“This is the MTV version of gothic romance ... Yet, by its own glossy ‘Miami Vice’ rules, the movie is stirring.” still of Daniel-Day Lewis as Hawkeye]
  36. Howell, J. Elle, Vol. 8, 2 (October 1992), p. 82. [Jodhi May is featured briefly]
  37. Hunter, Stephen. “’Mohicans’ is Lush Meditation on Killing,” Baltimore (MD) Sun (September 25, 1992). [Beautiful and damned, the movie is a long meditation on killing. (Hawkeye) is thin and quick, almost unbearably graceful, a laconic instant American icon. He’s like a calendar boy from the collective unconscious of the National Rifle Association. The real battle ... (is) between the filmmaking stylistics of Michael Mann and the hopelessly shabby formulaic melodramatics of the material. His (Mann) is a white man’s view of the events and the Native Americans stay in the background. The only native American to crack to life is the villainous Magua, brilliantly played by Wes Studi.]
  38. Jahiel, Edwin, “The Last of the Mohicans,” /lastmohi.htm [“I am grateful to the movie for bringing back my childhood ... Daniel Day Lewis “could be called Hunkas to match Uncas. You can’t imagine how accurate the muskets are. Everyone is a dead shot. Great action and suspense scenes. Courage all over. Sacrifices too. Lotsa guts, some spilled. This is Hollywood at its best – and its worst. Lavish, sumptuous, glorious, breathtaking sights. Most confusing. Muddled narrative. Unclarities. Lack of motivations. No characters developed. By all means go and admire Mother Nature in 1757.”]
  39. Johnson, Brian D. “Hawkeye Returns,” Maclean’s, 105, 40 (October 5, 1992), p. 63. [still of Daniel Day-Lewis; “Despite breathtaking scenery, fast-paced action, and painstaking period detail, the drama seems hollow at the core.” “The Battle scenes are thrilling ... “]
  40. Johnson, Malcom.” Where Barry Lyndon Meets Randolph Scott on the Frontier,” Hartford (CT) Courant (September 25, 1992). [Still, it violates literary license to rechristen Natty Bumppo with the more mellifluous and less silly moniker of Nathaniel Poe. The Indians are all pretty much the same as in Cooper. Chingachgook, filled with subdued power ... comes off fatherly and noble. Uncas ... exudes an almost mythic air. Magua ... remains the embodiment of evil, so naturally that the base miscreant steals the film. Rated R, this film contains especially brutal hand-to-hand combat and a high body count.]
  41. Jones, Bill. “’Last of the Mohicans’ Triumphs in Detail, Authenticity,” The Phoenix Gazette (September 25, 1992), p. 28. [“Mann shot `Mohicans’ in North Carolina were he found one of America’s last remaining old-growth forests. He built log cabins, planted 18ᵗʰ-century crops and constructed a 1- 20 scale model of Fort William Henry ... When the picture wrapped, the sets were razed and the area was reseeded.”]
  42. Kempley, Rita, “’Mohicans’: Beat the Drums,” Washington Post (September 25, 1992), p. 131. [“Part modern romance, part historical re-creation, the story no longer has much to do with Cooper’s original.” photo of Daniel-Day Lewis]
  43. King, Dennis. “A Classic Rendition Co-Stats Delight in Magic of Making ‘Mohicans’,” Tulsa (OK) World (September 25, 1992). [” ... for months before shooting began ... he (Day-Lewis) walked around in buckskins and carried a hefty Killdeer rifle with him everywhere he went. And he endured weeks of wilderness training with Army survival specialists in Alabama, learning to hunt, skin game and become adept at using 18ᵗʰ-century weaponry, from knives to tomahawks to muzzle-loaders.” “For her part, Stowe said the making of ‘Mohicans’ was a life-altering, and career-altering experience.”]
  44. Kronke, David. “’The Mohicans’ brings adventure, romance, to new lows,” (Los Angeles, CA) Daily News (September 25, 1992). [” ... stylized violence, flashy camera work, music aplenty, endlessly distracting slow-motion sequences and performers who posture more often than act, and the result could be called “Mohican Vice.” “This story is about romance, and should you forget that for even one second, the most overwrought musical score since “Batman Returns” is always on hand to remind you.” (Day-Lewis) “reveals more of his chest than his character’s psyche ... ” “Together, though, Stowe and Day-Lewis are a little short on chemistry.” “Ultimately, “The last of the Mohicans” is an intriguing but overblown piece of work ... a connect-the-dots epic ... “]
  45. “Last of the Mohicans,” website,
  46. “Last of the Mohicans,” website, [many frames from the movie which can be seen full sized by clicking on them; theme music]
  47. Lombardi, J. “What a Piece of Work is Mann,” Gentlemen’s Quarterly, 62 (June, 1992), pp. 172-179.
  48. McGarrigle, Dale. “Penobscots Play `Last of Mohicans’,” Kennebec Journal [Augusta, ME] (October 14, 1992). [“The filmmakers interviewed all the tribes along the East Coast ... They wanted tall, skinny Indians, with long hair. Little did we know that they were going to have our heads shaved ... the extras went through a couple of weeks of specialized training ... how to use period weaponry such as muskets, tomahawks, knives and war clubs, developing night vision, and being taught how to walk, run and hide in the forest. The local residents treated all the cast like celebrities ... They waited on you hand and foot ... but the 16 to 18 hour days of filming were difficult ... It would be cold in the mornings, and we’re out there half naked, We’d do the same scene over and over, day after day ... Maybe 5 percent of what was shot made it into the movie. The stars treated us like people and would talk to us if they weren’t busy ... “]
  49. Mars-Jones, Adam, Independent. [Michael Mann has been aiming all along at two different targets, trying to turn an adventure story into a responsible account of Native American life, while also making it lovey-dovey enough for the market place.”]
  50. Magiera, Marcy. “Studios Hope for Good Harvest with Fall Films,” Advertising Age, 63, 41 (October 5, 1992), p. 20. [opening of LOM in early fall (traditionally the slowest moviegoing time) instead of waiting for post-Thanksgiving period]
  51. Maltin, p. 757. [“Rousing, kinetic update of the James Fenimore Cooper classic, replete with 1990’s sensibilities, potent depiction of violence, and a charismatic central performance by Day-Lewis...”]
  52. Mann, Michael Kenneth, “Last of the Mohicans,” screenplay, 2ⁿᵈ draft, July 31, 1990, includes revised leaves dated November 29, 1990 and June 11, 1991, adapted by Michael Mann and Christopher Crowe, based on the novel by James Fenimore Cooper and the 1936 screenplay by Philip Dunne, 117 leaves. [The film won an Oscar at the 65ᵗʰ annual Academy Award Ceremony for “Best Sound,” March 29, 1992]
  53. Maslin, Janet. “Day-Lewis as Hawkeye in a Cooper Classic,” The New York Times, Vol. 142, 49 (September 25, 1992), p. B-2 (NY); p. C-3 (London), 23 column inches. [“The question of the hour, therefore, is why this most stupefying of American classics has now been brought back to the screen.” “Drawing upon the novel with merciful selectivity ... Michael Mann has directed a sultrier and more pointedly responsible version ... The film makers may have done a better job of making their own tomahawks and rebuilding Fort William Henry than breathing sense into their material, but the results are still riveting.” “Teamed with Mr. Day-Lewis is a romantic subplot that would have made Cooper blush ... ” “The Last of the Mohicans” is often choppy when it aspires to real sweep, with only a swelling score to supply what should been achieved through editing and staging.” “The film seems to be meant to be watched ... for its background ... ” “It can be watched for its enlightened and uncommonly interesting treatment of the story’s Indian characters ... ;” still of Madeleine Stowe and Daniel Day-Lewis]
  54. ------, “Hunks Help Sell History,” The New York Times, 142 (October 18, 1992), p. H13 (NY) ; p. H113 (London), 13 column inches. [criticizes Hawkeye’s visiting friends in cabin; “Mr. Day-Lewis brings serious chemistry to a role that seemingly had no romantic potential at all.”
  55. Mathews, Jack, Newsday (September 25, 1992), Part II, p. 60. [“The (1936) script corrected Cooper’s commercial oversight of not giving Hawkeye a love interest ... and Mann and his co-writer ... have taken the extra step of turning that relationship into the story’s driving force.” “Hawkeye strikes a dashing figure , cutting through the woods with the moves and grace of a gridiron tailback.” “The scene where Hawkeye and Cora slip into the dark to release their passion is a modern film anomaly; fully clothed, they manage to burn a hole in the screen merely through the passion of their embrace, their kissing, What a concept!” “As glorious as its images are and as heated as its romance is, the story of Mann’s version of “Mohicans” is as thin as an episode of his “Miami Vice.” Uncas and Chingachgook ... barely register in the telling ... we get very little cultural context on the nobility of their vanishing tribe.”]
  56. Means, Russell. Entertainment Weekly, 141 (October 23, 1992), p. 34. [describes his experiences and the historical accuracy of the film, and Hollywood’s portrayal of Indians]
  57. Moore, Roger. “Maker of `Mohicans’ Took Pains to get Everything Right,” Winston-Salem (NC) Journal (September 20, 1992). [“Mann was the person who picked Biltmore Forest, Burke County and Lake James ... It was at times a troubled production ... Russell Means ... led the Indian extras on a sit-down strike to get better living quarters. Crew members took to wearing “It Doesn’t Get Any Worse Than This” T-shirts ... audiences are very, very intelligent ... The French had 30 different American Indian groups fighting with them. You had to show them as distinct tribes, different tattooing, different war paint ... Michael Mann did his homework here, Means said, and the reason I was involved ... is because he has captured a moment in time when whites and Indians were on equal terms ... you couldn’t reach the site (for the final scene) by helicopter. So we hiked 22 miles up rocks, pulling on ropes to get there. No bathrooms ... it was freezing and wind was whipping us in the face (said Miss Stowe) And it was one of the happiest days of my life.”]
  58. Moore, Shirley Hunter. “’Mohicans’ Majesty Lures Moviegoers to Mountains,” Charlotte (NC) Observer (October 26, 1992). [NC Division of Travel: “We get about eight calls a day.” Burke County Chamber of Commerce have answered about 75 calls about Lake James ... the $6 million set (fort) ... was torn down. That hasn’t deterred visitors ... Officials at Chimney Rock Park have received so many phone calls, they’ve printed a guide explaining where park locations appear in the movie.”]
  59. Movshovitz, Howie. “`Mohicans’ Marred by Flash Over Substance,” Denver (CO) Post (September 25, 1992). [“Guys run through the woods, paddle along in canoes, throw stuff at each other, grunt a lot and make plenty of hoopla. Just why they do these things remains unclear ... James Fenimore Cooper’s novel, a tome of clogged writing style and pervasive racism that deserves whatever humiliation the movies heap upon it ... The principle that holds Cooper’s book together is the logic of racism ... It is a vile logic, but it works as narrative glue. The new film ... abandons all the overt racism, but doesn’t replace it with anything so nothing holds it together ... It’s “Miami Vice” gone north to live in the woods.”]
  60. Muldoon, Paul. “Big Hair,” Times Literary Supplement, Number 4675, 17 (November 6, 1992), p. 17. [The literary offense that can not be attributed to Cooper is a lack of narrative drive which has attracted movie makers since 1920. Daniel Day-Lewis launches himself at the role followed by an amazing shock of hair. Russell Means brings dignity and response to the role of Chingachgook while Eric Schweig gives us an Uncas fetching enough to stir a longing in the heart of Alice Munro a part which demands, and gets, scarcely anything from Jodhi May. When Magua, played with a definitive, grim grandeur by Wes Studi, is in the neighborhood the body count goes up. “I admire Mann’s skill in directing ... large-scale mayhem — the list of stuntmen is as long as the Hudson.”]
  61. Nesselson, Lisa. “Last of the Mohicans,” Variety, Vol. 348, 6 (August 31, 1992), p. 60. [still of Daniel Day Lewis as Hawkeye; “Film shouldn’t have much trouble finding its audience, although viewers familiar with the Seven Years War will be better prepared to keep assorted alliances straight.”]
  62. Newsweek, “Movies” (September 14, 1992), p. 66. [“Mann is a master of action;” still of Daniel Day-Lewis]
  63. Novak, Ralph. “Picks & Pans,” People Weekly, 38, 14 (October 5, 1992), pp. 21-23. [still of Daniel Day-Lewis as Hawkeye; “Think of this epic ... as Mohawk Valley Vice.” ” ... lots of splash and smoke and ultraloud sound, but slights Cooper’s two romantic subplots.” “Day-Lewis is a poor Hawkeye, with an accent suggesting he learned his woodsmanship in Hyde Park and the look of a guy whose only experience in New York was posing on Madison Avenue.” “Day-Lewis is also implicitly dueling with Randolph Scott, whose Virginia Drawl and lanky athleticism made a definitive Hawkeye in George Seitz’s 1936 version ... ” “Unimpressive, too, is Studi as the Huron Magua ... ” Mann “seems to have little understanding of the era, though, showing Day-Lewis running along firing a musket with each hand ... “]
  64. “On the Trail of the Last of the Mohicans ... A Guide Booklet to the Film’s Locations.” [many pictures and links; entire script]
  65. Parade Magazine, “Return of The Last of the Mohicans” (March 1, 1992), p. 8. [photos of Daniel Day-Lewis charging and of Madeline Stowe; “More than 600 Native Americans appear in the film.”]
  66. Pawelczak, Andy, “The Last of the Mohicans,” Films in Review, 43, 11/12 (November/December 1992), p. 403. [Hawkeye “at times evokes a hippie rock star of the ecological persuasion ... ” “a kind of grown up wild child, a sexy wood sprite running untrammeled through the arcadian forest.” “The relationship between Chingachgook and Hawkeye, which is so important to the novel, is barely sketched in,” Magua “gets several big scenes and is played powerfully and convincingly by Wes Studi,” “Ultimately, though, the other characters, and even the plot aren’t very important, and some of Cooper’s most significant themes ... aren’t even alluded to.” “Mann has created an icon for the nineties when many people, both conservative and liberal, long for a larger, free life.”]
  67. Rafferty Terrence. “Brave Acts,” The New Yorker, Vol. 68, 33 (October 5, 1992), pp. 160-161. [“He’s (Hawkeye) a cultured white man’s dream of virile primitivism, combining the survival skill, the unself-consciousness, and the at-one-with nature spirituality of the noble savage with the essential qualities of European manliness — chivalry, honor, and fair play.” “Dances with Wolves” tried to manufacture a similarly omni-virtuous male hero, but “The Last of the Mohicans” does the job a lot more persuasively ... ” “And in every shot we see a really terrific head of hair, which is one of the chief improvements of this movie over the 1936 version: Randolph Scott had to wear an unflattering coonskin cap.” ” ... awfully, solemnly silly, but it’s enjoyable and even rather stirring.”]
  68. Romney, Jonathan. “Right Road, Wrong Track,” New Statesman and Society, V, 227 (November 6, 1992), pp. 41-42. [Mann “reveals himself as a hack with a National Geographic complex.” Hawkeye is renamed Nathaniel Poe; Daniel Day Lewis is “Tarzan in thigh-boots;” “This is a flaccid, brainless film ... “]
  69. Rosenberg, Scott. “’Mohicans’: Last Word?” San Francisco (CA) Examiner (September 25, 1992). [(Mann) “makes a romance between Hawkeye and Cora Munro ... but these emotions remain ill-defined and undramatized ... I don’t think anyone will learn much about frontier life ... but if you want to know about 18ᵗʰ century siege warfare or what tomahawk combat really looked like, Mann’s your man. The film’s most gripping sequence by far is its elaborate tableau of a French attack on an English fort ... Too bad so much else in “Mohicans” is more patience-trying than mind-blowing.”]
  70. Salamon, Julie. The Wall Street Journal, “Film: Billy Crystal with Yuks and Schmalz” (September 24, 1992), p. A-15(W & E), 4 column inches. [“Mr. Mann took elaborate pains to recreate the physical landscape of the 18ᵗʰ-century America. He’s captured the feeling of the wilderness and the bizarre formality of the warfare of that time.” “However he doesn’t seem to grasp what the story is about.” “It is the kind of movie in which characters don’t talk, they exclaim.”]
  71. Schickel, Richard. “Return to a Lost World,” Time, Vol. 140, 13 (September 28, 1992), p. 72. [Hawkeye “blending, the Old World tradition of gallantry with the New World’s belief in the moral supremacy of those who live in close harmony with nature is our Ur-frontiersman, the archetype on whom every one from William S. Hart to Clint Eastwood has fashioned his variations.” “It is the great virtue of this grandly scaled yet deliriously energetic movie that it reanimates that long-ago feeling without patronizing it ... “]
  72. Schruers, Fred. “Mann Overboard,” Premiere, Vol. 6, 2 (October 1992), pp. 60-3+. [interviews of Mann, Day-Lewis, Stowe, and crew; story of the strike; stills of Day-Lewis and Mann, Day-Lewis and Huron with tomahawk; Mann on set, and Stowe and Jodhi May fleeing from massacre]
  73. Serritt, David. “The Last of the Mohicans,” The Christian Science Monitor, 84 (October 2, 1992), p. 12. [“But the screenplay is so wooden and the performances are so distanced that hardly a shred of real emotion manages to shine through all the action, violence, and pictorialization.”]
  74. Sheehan, Henry. Sight and Sound (UK), Vol. 2 (new series), 7 (November 1992), p. 45-46. [detailed description of film; “Working with the self-defeating combination of wide-screen composition and long shallow-focus lenses, Mann manages to ensure that his trio ... will look just as divorced from their life-sustaining landscape as the ducks-in-a-row British Redcoats.” “Russell Means and Eric Schweig give us plausibly ... and Steven Waddington is perfect as the supercilious ass, Heyward. But Daniel Day-Lewis’ Hawkeye is an astonishing array of bad choices ... ” Mann’s “transformation of The Last of the Mohicans into Adirondack Vice is thus a successful and intentional disaster.”]
  75. Shoales, Ian. “Mo’Hicans? No, Thanks,” New York Times (September 27, 1992). [“the movie’s director is probably responsible for this name change (Nathaniel Poe), as well as giving the old Leatherstocking the actress Madleine Stowe as a love interest. So Natty becomes Nathaniel, a non-smoking hardbody who wears sensible all-natural clothing, is emotionally available and can peg an elk with a tomahawk at 40 paces. If this New Age bumpkin catches on, he could become a kind of Colonial James Bond. The Last of the Mohicans could be the first in a series.”]
  76. Simon, John. “Return of the Native,” National Review, Vol. 44, 22 (November 16, 1992), pp. 61-62. [“I have no doubt that the dreadful movie The Last of the Mohicans” does Cooper full justice.” ” ... total confusion about the historical background ... Mann’s abject inability to tell a story.” “Mann seems blissfully ignorant of cinematic syntax ... ” ” ... an audience nurtured on car chases, demolition derbies, and MTV lapped it up (all the running) like mother’s mile, however curdled and bloodcurdling. And nonsensical.”]
  77. Smith, Gavin. “Mann Hunters,” Film Comment, Vol. 28, 6 (November-December, 1992), pp. 72, 75, 77. [stills: Uncas, Chingachgook, Hawkeye and extras; Stowe as a captive; Day-Lewis running in a fight scene; compares elements of Mann’s direction in “Thief,” “The Keep,” “Manhunter,” and “The Last of the Mohicans”]
  78. ------. “Michael Mann Wars and Peace,” Sight and Sound (UK), Vol. 2, 7 (November 1992), pp. 10-14. [cover: still of Daniel Day-Lewis; half page color stills of Lewis and Indians and of a night bombardment; stills of Cora and Alice escaping the massacre; Day-Lewis as Hawkeye; and of night inside the fort; interview with Gavin Smith covering Mann’s professional life]
  79. Stark, Susan. “Battle Fatigue,” Detroit (MI) News (September 25, 1992). [“Starchy writing and a sluggish pace make the film’s exposition seem endless.” “Indeed, good looks and a well-modulated but impressive physical lead performance by Daniel Day-Lewis are the film’s chief defenses against the stretches of dull and pretentious writing.” “She (Stowe) manages to convey both the character’s fragility and strength, but she gets so many of the script’s impossibly bad lines that if they gave out Oscars for valor, she’d be this year’s front runner.”]
  80. Stoneman, Donnell. “The Last of the Mohicans,” Greensboro (NC) News And Record (August 15, 1991). [“This week filming ... begins at 8 nightly and continues until 6 am.” “Instead of abandoning the fort, the British resist, leading to a spectacular, fiery battle.” “The scene is one of several departures from Cooper’s original story.” “The basic plot elements, however have been maintained.” “Shortly after sunset, most of the extras — 1,500 were hired; 500 play Indians — will be taken from the base camp along the valley road to the fort.”]
  81. Strauss, Bob. “`Last of the Mohicans’ Rings in First at Weekend Box Office,” (Los Angeles, CA) Daily News, (September 29, 1992). [“`Last of the Mohicans’ certainly came in first at the week-end movie box office. Grossing nearly $11 million ... “]
  82. Strickier, Jeff. “Last of the Mohicans,” Minneapolis (MN) Star And Tribune (September 25, 1992). [“Shoot-em-up isn’t an epic or true to the book.” “Gone is most of Cooper’s exploration of individual honor. In its place are love and war.” “So he takes Cooper’s plot, incorporates his own soap operatic touches, add a dab of political correct pronouncements about whites and American Indians and $35 million later, he’s in business.” “Mann regards the book as more of a general outline than a blueprint.” “As a shoot-em-up, its a dandy.”]
  83. Tager, Miles. “The Last of the Mohicans,” News and Observer [Raleigh, NC], (Sunday, October 13, 1991), pp. 1H, 4H. [update on Michael Mann’s new movie being shot in western NC (Linville Gorge); “Asked what kind of movie “The Last of the Mohicans” would likely be when it opens next spring, he didn’t hesitate. “It’s going to be a classic, he said.”]
  84. Tarkington, Amy. Seventeen, Vol. 51, 10 (October 1992), p. 92. [still of 16 year old Jodhi May; notice of the new picture]
  85. Toppman, Lawrence. “’Last’ Look: Raw Wilderness,” (NY, NY) Daily News (September 20, 1992). [Wes Studi (a Cherokee actor) is quoted as saying, “You have to have villains to have heroes, and we were available. And if my people had been writing the histories, the white settlers would have been the villains.” “The script shows Indians coexisting peacefully with frontier settlers, joining them at a dinner table and on playing fields.” The movie is revolutionary for Indian actors, said Means, “For the first time, a bad Indian (Magua) has a reason for being bad ... The movie shows Indians and non-Indians sharing clothes and lifestyles.”]
  86. ------. “On Location,” Charlotte (NC) Observer (September 20, 1992). [same article as above plus three paragraphs; Means originally ended the film with a pessimistic speech about the future. This was cut. “Fox executives, Means implies, were reluctant to ruffle white audiences and even asked if the dinner table scene were necessary.”]
  87. Travers, Peter. Rolling Stone, No. 642 (October 29 1992), pp. 76-77. [” ... Mann clumsily lays out the Indian and white alliances ... ” ” ... the action is richly detailed and thrillingly staged.” “Still, the scalpings and eviscerations can’t hide the film’s dramatic hollowness.”]
  88. ------. Ibid, No. 645 (December 10-14, 1992), p. 190. [review of the year]
  89. Turan, Kenneth, Los Angeles Times, (September 25, 1992), Calendar, p. 1. [“The Last of the Mohicans” is unashamedly based more on the Randolph Scott-starring 1936 version than the original James Fenimore Cooper novel ... ” ” ... the whole panoply of Saturday matinee emotions has been remarkable adrenalized and given a new and vigorous lease on life.” “Stowe ... seems to be making a career of bringing more life to stilted parts than they have any right to ... turning Cora into the kind of feisty firebrand a no-nonsense guy like Hawkeye would appreciate. As for Daniel Day-Lewis, he proves once again that he is one of those chameleons who can play absolutely anything with complete conviction.” ” ... it is words, ... that “Mohicans” ... has the most trouble with.” “If the powers that be had worried a fraction as much about the words . ... as they apparently did about the clothes ... and weapons ... none of this would have been a problem.”]
  90. Verniere, James. “’Miami Vice’ Director puts an MTV-style, Sex-and-action Spin on James Fenimore Cooper’s Classic `Last of the Mohicans’,” Boston (MA) Herald (September 25, 1992). [“In Mann’s film, Hawkeye is not the blood brother and contemporary of ... Chingachgook ... he’s his adopted son. This re-alignment is strange since ... it makes Hawkeye the last of the Mohicans.” In fact, there are so many box-office-influenced alterations in Mann’s version that it isn’t “The Last of the Mohicans” at all.” “Still, Mann is a talented director who creates moments of pure cinematic excitement — the attack on Fort William Henry is a tour de force — even if they don’t have much to do with the novel.”]
  91. Walker, Jeffrey, “Deconstructing and American Myth: Hollywood and the Last of the Mohicans,” Film & History Vol. 23, 1&4 (1 February 1993), pp. 104-116. [“Cooper was far more interested in exploring larger moral issues in The Last of the Mohicans, something Hollywood has not recognized in its adaptations of the novel,” p. 111; Hawk-eye, for all his centrality in the tale, never serves as the romantic lead or as the hero of the adaptations of Cooper’s work, p. 112; still of Daniel Day-Lewis and Madeline Stowe, p. 103]
  92. Walker, John. [“An ambitious but flawed epic adventure: the characterization is as shallow as the photography, the action is repetitious, the narrative lacks suspense and the romance is unconvincing with Cooper’s self-reliant woodsman here turned into domesticity.”]
  93. Whole Earth Review, No. 78 (Spring, 1993), pp. 106-112. [with the renewed interest in Cooper accompanied with the success of the movie “The Last of the Mohicans,” their Hartford correspondent, Samuel Clemens, prepares a critique (actually a reprint of “Fenimore Cooper’s Literary Offenses”)]
  94. Will, George F. “To Govern a Nation of Hawkeyes, “The Washington Post, 115 (October 8, 1992), p. A-21. [Hawkeye’s response to the British officer, “Don’t call myself subject to much at all.” has been America’s political problem: ... the call of the forest against the claims of community — that still conditions our politics. ... most Americans do not feel, or want to feel, subject to much at all.”]
  95. Williamson, Bruce. Playboy, Vol. 39, 12 (December 1992), p. 20-21. [“Hawkeye has such an endless supply of ammunition you’d swear his flintlock rifle was an Uzi. Even so, director Michael Mann makes Mohicans an intelligent saga with plenty of edge-of-your-seat excitement.”]
  96. Woodard Richard B. “The Intensely Imagined Life of Daniel Day-Lewis ,” The New York Times Magazine, 141 (July 5, 1992), p. 14. [104 column inches; discusses his career and work in LOM]
  97. Wuntch, Philip. “The Last of the Mohicans An Epic Tale in Scale, Power,” Dallas (TX) Morning News (September 25, 1992). [a glowing review: “The film’s depiction of combat, with its casual savagery and sudden moments of heroism, is stunning.” “Despite its carnage, The Last of the Mohicans is one of the most humane films imaginable.” “Mr. Mann’s direction is riveting, and those who thought him merely a visual stylist will be surprised at the performance of his cast.” “Ms Stowe, who resembles a beautiful cameo at the center of a string of pearls, is captivating as Cora ... ” “The Last of the Mohicans is epic movie making, grand in scope and human in scale.”]
  98. ------. “Making History ‘Last of the Mohicans’ Tells its Story with Authenticity,” Dallas (TX) Morning News (October 3, 1992). [I like things done right, Mr. Mann says ... If there’s a scene of great impact, and an extra’s war paint is wrong, the audience will go right to the war paint. I didn’t want Cora to be the typical James Fenimore Cooper fainting lady ... He also wanted the American Indians to be portrayed as multidimensional people. Russell Means is quoted, But Last of the Mohicans has character development ... and for the first time, a movie shows Indians and non-Indians interacting socially, which happened frequently then.]

1994 “Hawkeye: The First Frontier”

Sky TV, Britain; Stephen J. Cannell Production; created and written by Kim LeMasters; filmed around Vancouver, Canada; music: Joel Goldsmith; photography: Benton Spencer; editors: Lynne Willingham and Chris G. Willingham; executive producers: David Levinson. Cast included: Lee Horsley as Hawkeye, Rodney A. Grant as Chingachgook, Lynda Carter as Elizabeth Shields, Garwin Sanford as Capt. Taylor Shields, Lochlyn Munro as McKinney, and Jed Rees as Peevey [McKinney and Rees were two teenagers who worked in the store for Elizabeth], and occasionally Duncan Fraser as Col. Munro. [aired in Britain in April; pilot episode:9 -14 & 9 -21- 94]

Synopsis: Story revolves around a fort in 1775. Elizabeth Shields’ corrupt brother-in-law [second in command] gets her husband Samuel captured by the Hurons. Hawkeye and Chingachgook visit the fort. Each episode explores life on the frontier, the thuggish Huron Indians, the machinations of the arrogant Taylor, and the developing relationship between Hawkeye and Elizabeth.

  1. Beck, Marilyn and Smith, Stacy Jenel. Tribune Media Services, (October 28, 1994). [Lee Horsley will play Hawkeye in a new 22 episode syndicated series with co-star Lynda Carter. This Stephen J. Cannel production is based on the legendary frontiersman created by James Fenimore Cooper in his classic 19ᵗʰ-century novels known as the “Leatherstocking Tales.”]
  2. Brooks, [“Another of TV’s periodic travesties of American history ... ]
  3. Lentz, p. 1630. [lists 1994-95 programs by name, director, and date of production]


1911 “The Deerslayer”

Vitagraph production starring Hal Reid and his son (William) Wallace Reid playing a muscular Chingachgook, with Harry T. Morey as the Deerslayer, Ethel Dunne as Hist, Edward Thomas as Thomas Hutter, Hal Reid as Hurry Harry March, Evelyn Dominicis as Judith Hutter, Florence E. Turner as Hetty Hunter, and William F. Cooper as Chief Rivenoak.

  1. The Freeman’s Journal, “Vitagraph Company of America to Take Moving Pictures of Cooper Tales Here,” (July 5, 1911), p. 4. [Mr. And Mrs. L. Trimble arrive to look over the shores of Otsego Lake prior to the filming]
  2. The Freeman’s Journal and the Oneonta Press, “Indian Tribes Coming” (July 19, 1911). [The Vitagraph Company is to be here again in August ... and they will bring with them a band of real Indians numbering probably twenty-five. The chiefs, squaws and papooses will camp out in their native style ... and they will no doubt furnish ... a dash of romance to life in the late summer upon the Glimmerglass.”]
  3. The Freeman’s Journal, “Vitagraph Folks Are Here,” (September 6, 1911). [Mr. Lawrence Trimble has engaged Luther D. Robinson to build a float to represent Hutter’s Castle and Armine Gaziny to assist in the manufacture of suitable craft for the tales of Pioneer days.]
  4. The Freeman’s Journal (September 20, 1911), p. 5. [The Ark was launched with due ceremony on Saturday afternoon, and is now being decorated by Artist Lou Sherwood. “It is not likely that James Fenimore Cooper ever dreamed that the scenes he described upon Otsego Lake in “The Deerslayer” would ever actually occur.”]
  5. The Freeman’s Journal, “Cooper in Moving Pictures,” (September 27, 1911), p. 1. [After two weeks in rehearsals, the first moving picture in the Deerslayer series was taken. Mr. Edward Thomas has been giving much attention to mastering the art of paddling a canoe. Caribou Bill, the well known Alaskan guide, plays an Indian. Saturday morning the Indians attacked Hutter’s Ark, and on the actual spot described by Cooper, near Gravelly Point, Deerslayer killed his first Indian (Hal Wilson). Muskrat Castle is completed. The company has spared no expense in making this true to the Cooper story. “The ice this winter will probably destroy the castle, but its appearance there has suggested the idea that a permanent structure would be a fitting memorial to Cooper and his works, as well as an ornament to the lake.”]
  6. The Moving Picture World (June 3, 1911), p. 1261. [The Vitagraph Company have under course of construction and production the “Leatherstocking Tales,” by Fenimore Cooper, including “The Path Finder,” “The Deerslayer,” and “The Last of the Mohicans. They will be replete with the most careful portrayal of the scenes, dress and characteristics of the early periods of American history and Indian Life ... and showing the encroachments of the white man upon their rights of territory and precedence.”]
  7. Perry, Montanye, Motion Picture Story Magazine, Vol. 3, 12 (February 1912), pp. 49-62. [detailed rendering of the dialog from Larry Trimble’s scenario with eleven stills from the film]
  8. Richfield Mercury (September 21, 1911), p. 1. [Sixteen Vitagraph actors, the advance guard of the company that is to make moving-picture films of scenes from “The Deerslayer” ... have arrived in Cooperstown.]
  9. ------ (September 28, 1911), p. 1. [“The company is living in Rathbone cottage at Hyde Bay. By means of these films, ... this village will be brought to greater prominence than ever before.”]

1913 “The Deerslayer”

Two reels, Vitagraph production directed by Hal Reid starring Florence E. Turner (Vitagraph’s great first dramatic star known as “The Vitagraph Girl”) as Hetty Hunter, Hal Reid as Hurry Harry March, Evelyn Dominicis as Judith Hutter, Harry T. Morey as The Deerslayer, Ethel Dunn as Hist, Edward Thomas as Thomas Hutter, William F. Cooper as Chief Rivenoak, and (William) Wallace Reid as Chingachgook. [remake/release of the 1911 Vitagraph film]

  1. Bowser, Vol. 2, p. 241. [” ... an impressive pictorial shot looks through a wide door onto water, with this central panel of water and its bright light reflections bordered by two panels of darkness of about equal size.”]
  2. Harrison, Louis Reeves, “Deerslayer,” The Moving Picture World, 16 (April 5, 1913), p. 31. [“In this Cowboy-and-Indian period of motion-picture evolution, this era of revolver and scalping knife, of fringed trousers, war paint and feather bonnets, the supreme delight of five-year-old boys, a revival of James Fenimore Cooper’s stories seems highly appropriate ... ” “It is superior to most of the tendency of the times it depicts. ” two stills from the Two-Reel Feature, “Deerslayer”]
  3. The Moving Picture World (May 7, 1913), p. 505-506. [a two part detailed account]
  4. Wood, Ruth Kedzie. “Leatherstocking Trail,” The Bookman, XLI, 5 (July, 1915), pp. 513-521. [pictures of “The Ark” and of “Tom Hutter’s Castle” constructed on Otsego Lake by a cinematograph company for the presentation of “The Deerslayer.”]

1923 “The Deerslayer”

Cameo Distributing, 60 minutes, black and white, director: Arthur Wellin, screenplay: Robert Heymann, with Emil Mamelok, Bela Lugosi, Herta Heden, Gottfried Kraus, Edward Eyseneck, and Margot Sokolowska.

Synopsis: Story has Hawkeye and his Indian blood brother Chingachgook aid British settlers harassed by the French and Indians in upper New York state.

  1. Pitt, p. 101. [“picturesque, but jumbled, German silent version ... originally issued in Europe in 1920 by Luna Film as Lederstrumpf (Leatherstocking); heavily cut but still worth seeing for Bela Lugosi’s performance as Chingachgook.”]

1924 “Leatherstocking”

Pathé Exchange, directed by George B. Seitz with Harold Miller as Leatherstocking; Edna Murphy as Judith Hutter; Lillian Hall as Hetty, Judith’s sister; Whitehorse as “Floating Tom Hutter;” David Dunbar as Chingachgook; Frank Lackteen as Briarthorn, and Lou Short. [a ten chapter motion picture serial of The Deerslayer; Chapter Titles: 1. The Warpath; 2. The Scarlet Trail; 3. The Hawk’s Eyes [copyright: 20 Feb. 1924]; 4. The Paleface Law; 5. Ransom; 6. The Betrayal; 7. Rivenoak’s Revenge; 8. Out of the Storm; 9. The Panther [copyright: 18 April 1924]; and Chapter 10. Mingo Torture [copyright: 24 April 1924]; publicity claimed the episodes were based on The Deerslayer, but reviewers didn’t think so]

  1. Freeman’s Journal and the Oneonta Press, “`Leatherstocking’ New Pathé Film,” (Wednesday, February 13, 1924), p. 1. [reprint from Photoplay Sidelights (a broadsheet devoted to the regular releases of Pathé films) concerning the 10 episode serial directed by Geroge B. Seitz]
  2. Harmon, p. 323. [” ... a story of the American frontier, with Indians on the warpath, attacking panthers, and various forms of sadistic torture devised by the savages.”]
  3. Lahue, p. 242. [chapter titles listed]
  4. Gray, George Arthur. Leatherstocking. New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1924. [8 leaves of plates: illustrated with scenes from the Pathé Serial]

1943 “The Deerslayer”

Republic Pictures, produced by P. S. Harrison and E. B. Derr, directed by Lew Landers and starring Bruce Kellogg as Deerslayer with Yvonne De Carlo as Wah-Tah-Wah, Adddison Richards as Tom Hutter, Jean Parker as Judith, Wanda McKay as Hetty, Warren Ashe as Harry March, Phil Van Zandt as Briarthorn, Johnny Michaels as Bobby Hunter, Larry Parks as Jingo-Good, Trevor Bardette as Chief Rivenoak, Robert Warwick as Uncas, Chief Many Treaties as Chief Brave Eagle, Princess Whynemak as Duenna, Clancy Cooper as Mr. Barlow, and William Edmund as the Huron Sub-Chief.

Synopsis:Story has Kellogg aiding Jean Parker and her party of settlers who are caught in the middle of an Indian war. An Indian princess, Yvonne De Carlo who is promised to a young brave (Larry Parks) is kidnapped by a Huron tribe rival (Philip Van Zandt as Briarthron) who also burns the tribe’s village. Deerslayer Kellogg leads his tribe in defeating the Hurons and of course, rescuing the princess. Settings shot on location are excellent, Hutter’s Castle was built in the center of a lake; the acting good, and the plot and characterizations nearly faithful to the original; exceptions: old Hutter has a son Bobby who is shot by Hurons early in the film; Hetty Hutter feigned madness (a cinematic technique often used to get Indians to believe that the person is possessed by the gods); and Judith Hutter rejects Deerslayer in favor of his friend Harry March. Kellogg played Deerslayer well, Larry Parks was too stiff as Chingachgook; Jean Parker was too troubled as Judith; Wanda McKay was excellent as Hetty, and Yvonne DeCarlo was bewitching as Wah-Tah-Wah.

  1. Agee, p. 61. [“But this defenseless and disarming show is the purest dumb delight I have seen in a long time.”]
  2. Garfield, p. 146. [“This one was just possibly the worst of all the rotten film versions of Fenimore Cooper’s Leatherstocking Tales;”]
  3. Hardy, p. 135. [” ... a film that has its origins in James Fenimore Cooper’s classic novel but is best remembered for being the most inept production ever to be released under Republic’s banner.” still of Parks, McKay, Parker, and Kellogg standing on the deck of Hutter’s Castle]
  4. Nash, p. 613. [“An unbelievable inept adaptation of James Fenimore Cooper’s classic tale that turns the white boy raised by Mohicans into an Indian-fighting super hero who gets himself into and out of more jams than the average serial hero did in a month.”]
  5. New York Daily News called the film “just like a refugee from a nickelodeon”
  6. Don Miller noted in B Movies, 1973: ” ... the action was crammed full of such unintended howlers as a band of horsemen riding point blank past an Indian ambush without receiving a scratch; a brave lying prone on a rock somehow managing to receive a wound in a part of his body completely obliterated from view; notable and frequent flaws in acting, dialogue, logic and exposition ... ”
  7. Pitts, p. 101. [“Tacky presentation of the James Fenimore Cooper story;”]
  8. Variety “Deerslayer,” signed “Walt” (November 10, 1943). [“Harrison draws a complete blank as a producer-scenarist ... ” “Plot is a disjointed display of Indian warfare that might have passed inspection in the early nickelodeon days ... ” “Deerslayer is a super-hero, who continuously eludes the Indians, and, when he’s captured, easily escapes at the most convenient spots for script purposes.” “After sufficient footage of amateurish jumble, the battling tribe is dispersed to bring peace to the district.” “Direction by Lew Landers is sophomoric.”]

1956 “Hawkeye and the Last of the Mohicans”

39 episode (30 minutes each) syndicated TV series, directed by Sam Newfield; produced by Sigmund Neufeld, with John Hart as Hawkeye and Lon Chaney, Jr. as Chingachgook. [made-in-Canada telefilm; four telefeatures were made from this serial: “Along the Mohawk Trail;” “The Long Rifle;” “The Pathfinder and the Mohican;” and “The Redmen and the Renegades”]

1957 “The Deerslayer”

Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation, color, 76 minutes, directed and produced by Kurt Neumann, filmed at Bass Lake in the High Sierras. Lex Barker played the Deerslayer with Rita Moreno as Hetty Hutter, Forrest Tucker as Harry March, Jay C. Flippin as Tom Hutter, Cathy O’Donnell as Judith Hutter, Carlos Rivas as Chingachgook, John Halloran as Old Warrior, Joseph Vitale as chief of the Hurons, stunts: Rocky Shahan, Phil Schumacker, George Robotham, and Carol Henry.

Synopsis: Story, loosely based on Cooper’s novel, has Deerslayer and Chinghachgook trying to avert and Indian war. Tom Hutter and his two daughters have been living on an island fort. He has been taking Huron scalps for years and the Indians want revenge. Rita Moreno, who played Hetty Hutter and Wah-Ta-Wah combined into one character, was a Huron baby adopted by Hutter. She returns to her tribe after her father is killed. Briarthorn was omitted.

  1. Cahoon, Herbert. “The Deerslayer,” Library Journal, 82 (October 15, 1957), p. 2525. [“It is doubtful if this ... would make an enjoyable motion picture if the plot and action of the novel were strictly adhered to; and in this version the plot has been revised, mainly in the direction of a totally happy ending. But the characters which Cooper created and his imaginative armed houseboat setting distinguish this picture ... the Deerslayer and Chingachgook ... are true Cooper characters ... Cooper’s females have little to do, as usual. Cooper’s dialogue had its faults, but stands head and shoulders above that in the current screenplay.”]
  2. Garfield, p. 146. [“Cheapie was filmed on indoor sets with stock rear-projection footage of scenery. It is marginally better than the ludicrous 1943 version but who cares?”]
  3. Maltin, p. 322. [”... novel is given pedestrian treatment, with virtually all indoor sets and rear-screen projection.”]
  4. Senior Scholastic, “Following the Films,” 71 (November 15, 1957), p. 33. [“This film is not up to Last of the Mohicans, an earlier Cooper Classic, but all the elements of excitement are still there.” Rated “good;” still of Barker and Carlos Rivas]
  5. Variety, “The Deerslayer,” signed “Whit.” (September 18, 1957), p. 6. [“a well-turned-out actioner ... slanted particularly for demands of the juve trade.” “Baker plays his part convincingly and has okay support ... “]
  6. Wheaton, p. 30. [script by Carroll Young and Kurt Neumann housed at University of Southern California]

1969 “Vinatorul de cerbi”

[Blame the Stag] (Romania), directed by Jean Dreville, Pierre Gaspard-Huit, and Sergiu Nicolaescu.

1978 “The Deerslayer”

Motion picture, Classics Illustrated, 90 minutes, created by Charles E. Sellier, Jr. and James L. Conway. Morris Plains, NJ: Lucerne Films, 1978, 4 film reels (87 minutes), sound/color, 16 mm. Produced by Bill Conford; directed by Dick Friedenberg; teleplay by S. S. Schweitzer. [because of release date (18 December 1978) this is probably the same film as the 1979 SCHICK SUNN production cited below]

1979 “The Deerslayer”

Schick Sunn Classics/ NBC-TV, color, 104 minutes, directed by Dick Friedenberg, teleplay: S. S. Schweitzer. Steve Forrest played Hawkeye, Ned Romero as Chingachgook [a repeat of their roles in the 1977 “Last of the Mohicans”], John Anderson as Hutter, Joan Prather as Judith Hutter, Madeline Stowe as Hetty Hunter, Victor Mohica as Chief Rivenoak, Charles Dierkop as Hurry Harry March, Brian Davies as Lt. Plowden, Ted Hamilton as Sieur de Beaujour, Ruben Moreno as Tamenund, Betty Ann Carr as Wa-Wa-Ta, and Alma Beltran, Rosa Maria Hudson, Andrew William Lewis, Stephen Craig Taylor.

Synopsis: Story has Hawkeye and Chingachgook help Chief Rivenoak get his kidnapped daughter back from a rival tribe.


1911 “The Pathfinder”

Directed by Laurence Trimble with Wallace Reid.

1952 “The Pathfinder”

Columbia Pictures, technicolor, 78 minutes; directed by Sidney Salkow; screenwriter: Robert E. Kent; starring George Montgomery as Pathfinder aided by Jay Silverheels (a Mohawk Indian) as Chingachgook, Ed Coch, Jr. as Uncas, Helena Carter as Welcome Alison, Rodd Redwing as Chief Arrowhead is the leader of the hostile Mingos, Elena Verdugo plays Lokawa the wife of a British soldier, Chief Yowlachie as Eagle Feather, Russ Conklin as Togamak, Vi Ingraham as Ka-Letan, Adele St. Maur as the matron, Bruce Lester as Capt. Bradford, Stephen Bekassy as Col. Brasseau, and Walter Kingsford as Col. Duncannon.

Synopsis Story has British troops rescue captured British scout Montgomery, masquerading as a French scout, and his interpreter Carter who are about to face a French firing squad at St. Vincente, 1754. Neither Uncas nor Chingachgook die. Montgomery ends up with Carter. Chingachgook informs the Pathfinder that Carter is “much better than horse.”

  1. Christian Century, 70, 31 (January 7, 1953) [“Adventure tale is competent enough, but pedestrian. Displays little of imagination of significant comment, conveys none of the favor of the Cooper original.”]
  2. Garfield, p. 257. [“There’s plenty of action but not much of a script in this cheap adaptation ... “]
  3. Pitts, p. 304. [“Another tepid retelling of James Fenimore Cooper’s “Leatherstocking” tales, this time embellished by color.”]
  4. Variety “The Pathfinder,” signed “Brog” (December 17, 1952). [George Montgomery is an excellent hero, displaying his muscles in rugged response to the title role’s demands.” “The couple finds time for romance along with their spying ... ” “Jay Silverheels is good as a Mohican who aids Montgomery, and Stephen Bekassy shows up well as the French commandant.” “Most of the players have difficulty maintaining accents consistent with their characters.”]

1973 “Hawkeye, The Pathfinder”

BBC in co-production with 20ᵗʰ Century Fox TV and ABC TV; producer: John McRae; director: David Maloney Century Theatre; Five part [55 minutes each] serial dramatized by Allan Prior and Alistair Bell; Hawkeye: Paul Massie; Chingachgook: John Abineri. [Erickson, p. 260; Vahimagi, p. 197]

1987 “Sledopyt”

[Pathfinder] (Russian), color, 91 minutes, adapted and directed by: Pavel Lyubimov; cinematography: Anatoli Grishko; music: Yuri Saulsky. Cast: Yuri Avsharov, Andris Zagars, Anastasiya Nemolyayeva, Emmanuil Vitorgan, Andrei Mironov, and other minor players.

1996 “Pathfinder”

Producer: John Danylkiw; director: Donald Shebib, Cast: Kevin Dillon as Natty Bumppo, Michael Hogan as Cap; Graham Green as Chingachcook, Jaimz Woolvett as Jasper Weston, Russell Means as Arrowhead, Charles Powell as Lt. Zale, Ralph Kussman as guard on ship, Stacy Keach as Compte du Leon a pompous French general, Laurie Holden as Mable Dunham with Dan MacDonald, Stephen Russell, Michelle St. John, Lawrence Boyne. and Bermard Behrens.

  1. Mike Levy, “Film crew is reviving famed tale by Cooper,” Buffalo News (August 6, 1995), pp. C1, C3. [“The Pathfinder” – a small-budget TV movie (1.5 million) has staged scenes at Midland, Ontario, St. Mary Among the Hurons mission and fort and in the Niagara Gorge. Shooting is expected to take three weeks instead of the six or eight weeks it usually takes.
  2. Maltin, p. 1043. [“Atmospheric though episodic retelling of James Fenimore Cooper’s French and Indian Wars saga.”]


1947 “The Prairie”

Screen Guild, black and white, 68 minutes, directed by Frank Wisbar (Franz Wysbar); screenplay: Arthur St. Clare. Cast: Alan Baxter as Paul Hover, Lenore Aubert as Ellen Wade, Russ Vincent as Abiram White, Jack Mitchum as Asa Bush, Charles Evans as Ishmael Bush, Edna Holland a Esther Bush, Fred Coby as Abner Bush, Bill Murphy as Jess Bush, David Gerber as Gabe Bush, Don Lynch as Enoch Bush, George Morrell as Luke, Beth Taylor as Annie Morris, Chief Yowlachie as Mahtoree, Chief Thunder Cloud as Eagle Feather, Jay Silverheels as Running Deer and Frank Hemmingway the Commentary.

  1. Nash, p. 2444. [“A good cast and decent script could have used higher production values and stronger direction.”]
  2. Variety, signed “Jose” (October 25, 1948), p. 8. [Cooper’s novels “have provided excellent screen fare for several decades. They usually have action, broad sweeps of motion and well-defined story lines, and “The Prairie” follows form.” “Cast is uniformly good with Lenore Aubert providing the romantic interest while Russ Vincent and Jack Mitchum do well as the feuding brothers. Charles Evans is excellent as the patriarch, and Baxter similarly does okay as the buckskin man of the hour. The photography is okay and the musical background adequate.”]


1941 “The Pioneers”

Monogram Pictures, black and white, 59 minutes; directed by Al Herman; screenplay: Charles Anderson. Cast: Tex Ritter as Tex, Arkansas `Slim’ Andrews as Slim; Red Foley as Red; Doye O’Deil as Doye; Wanda McKay as Suzanna; George Chesbro as Wilson; Del Lawrence as Ames; Post Park as Benton; Karl Hackett as Carson; Lynton Brent as Jingo; Chick Hannon as Pete; Gene Alsace as Sheriff; Jack C. Smith as Judge; Chief Many Treaties as Warcloud; Chief Soldani as Lonedeer; Red Foley’s Saddle Pals; and White Flash the Horse.

Synopsis: Story line has Ritter and mule-riding [“imagine pursuing, or being pursued by scalp-hot Injuns — aboard a mule.”] sidekick Andrews are hired to protect a wagon train. A gang of villains stir up the Indians to keep Ritter busy. Cooper’s name appeared in the credits and the press book advised exhibitors to arrange with their local libraries for special displays of “Cooper’s popular works;” but no character in the film was taken from the book, no dialogue, and no incidents resembled Cooper’s plot. The film consisted largely of stock footage: the Indian attack was taken from the 1933 Mascot serial “Fighting with Kit Carson” and used again by Finney in “Buffalo Bill in Tomahawk Territory.”

  1. Variety, signed “Wood,” “The Pioneers (with songs)” (June 25, 1941). [“Routine western. Though it’s stocked with more than the usual amount of gunplay and sundry battles, `Pioneers’ never gets out of the ordinary.” “Hot and heavy action, in the few fights depicted, is the only thing that saves the whole thing from the doldrums.” “Ritter himself handles his assignment as a protector of a wagon train of settlers ... in proper style, just oozing confidence in anything he tackles.” ” Wanda McKay’s the femme interest. She handles herself with considerably more ease than the average.” “Red Foley’s Saddle Pals kick in with a few trail tunes, none of more than passing interest.”]
  2. Andersen, Charles. “The Pioneers,” Hollywood, CA: Boots & Saddles Pictures, 1941, filmscript, 76 pages.


1914 “The Spy”

Universal, silent, black and white, directed by Otis Turner; screenwriter: James Dayton. Cast included Herbert Rawlinson as Harvey Birch (the spy), Edna Maison as Katrie his sweetheart, Ella Hall as Frances Wharton, William Worthington as Gen. Washington, Edward Alexander as Maj. Dunwoodie, Rex De Rosselli as Mr. Wharton, J. W. Pike and his son Henry, and Frank Lloyd as Jake Parsons.

Synopsis: Story line has Birch allowing himself to be arrested so he can be questioned by Washington; Washington allows him to escape; Maj. Dunwoodie offers a reward; Henry, a British officer, comes to bid his family goodbye and is allowed safe passage because of the intent of his visit; Maj. Dunwoodie must arrest him as a traitor when he is found in an American uniform; Birch, disguised as a minister, changes clothes with Henry; Birch does not use the letter to save himself, but at the last moment the Gen. arrives and orders a search which reveals Birch’s innocence.

  1. Variety, “The Spy,” review signed “Mark” (March 27, 1914). [Here’s a picture that no exhibitor need be ashamed to book and give it all the outside billing he can as it is a clean cut American story from start to finish. “The Spy” is in four parts and announced as an adaptation of James Fenimore Cooper’s novel of that title. It’s an Universal feature with some of the finest exterior scenes shown by the camera in many moons. “The Spy” may not be the greatest story ever done by the movie, but it is one that has sufficient interest to carry it along to big returns. It makes a play upon one’s patriotism and right well has Otis Turner directed the photoplay. The spy in the movie scenario, is Harvey Birch, of the household of Gen. George Washington, who has the young man doing all sorts of daring work, gaining news of value to Washington and delivering false messages to the British. The spy makes Washington’s own men believe that he’s a British spy in order that he can move with greater freedom through the enemy’s lines. The ruse works so splendidly that no one divines the truth until the close of the picture when Washington’s men are about to hang him on a public scaffold. Through the picture the soldiers on both sides prepare for the attack, the big conflict coming off at a ridge which the Washington army fighters undermine as the Britishers start to cross it. The collapse of a section of the bridge with the soldiers on it causes quite a gasp being cleverly staged. A sharp conflict at the water’s edge follows with some of the British men toppling off backwards into the stream. It’s a thriller that movie patrons relish. The spy makes all sorts of escapes after being captured time and again and he has the soldiers on both sides up in the air, so to speak. There’s a strong love story running through the feature. The spy has a sweetheart whom he visits under risk or capture. Then there’s Major Dunwoodie, played by Edward Alexander, who was rather effeminate to be true in gestures and appearance, but sufficiently soldierly to pass in the trappings of the American commander of a troop of Washington’s soldiers. The major loves Frances Wharton who is captured by the “skinners” (a band of renegade soldiers who foraged, killed and plundered regardless whether their victims be friends or foes). There’s a timely rescue by the spy who, in turn, brings her safely into the American camp. At the Wharton home comes General Washington, who encounters Captain Wharton, of the opposing forces. In succession follows a series of outdoor maneuvers in scenic spots with Wharton finally being taken prisoner, tried by the American council of war and sentenced to be hung. Then the spy, disguised as a minister, visits Wharton in his cell, changes clothes and permits him to escape. For the finale comes the gallows scene with the spy being restored to good standing by the arrival of Washington who orders the man searched. A signed parchment from the General himself reveals the spy in his true colors. Regardless of any fault any of the “critical critics” may find in the story there’s no denying that photographically and scenically the picture is there. The Universal has gone to a lot of expense in giving the scenes as historic and true a setting as possibly could be made under the circumstances.
    Herbert Rawlinson enacts the spy and does some bully good work. He is full of “pep” and scoots about his business in a typical American way. Edna Maison is his sweetheart and does well what little is allotted to her. Ella Hall is Frances Wharton and she’s a likely looking miss — one of those sweet blondes who, in the old fashion dresses, is irresistibly nice before the cameras — and she handles her role creditably. William Worthington is a handsome Washington inclined at times to assume “actory poses,” but does the best he can with a role that few photoplay actors dislike to attempt. Some of the minor characters were excellently played, the two negro servants filling in nicely in their respective roles while several of those “skinners,” in point of makeup and work lived up to their parts. There’s one actor who will long be remembered after the picture leaves the movie house and that’s the beautiful white charger which Washington rides in “The Spy.”]


The Deerslayer

  1. “The Deerslayer,” motion picture, Twentieth Century-Fox, 1957, released by Productions Unlimited, New York, 1963, (80 minutes), sound/color, 16mm. Producer and director: Kurt Neumann; screenplay: Carroll Young, Kurt Neumann; music: Paul Sawtell, Bert Shefter; photographer: Karl Strauss; cast included: Lex Barker, Rita Moreno, Forrest Tucker, Cathy O’Donnell.
  2. “The Deerslayer,” videorecording. Morris Plains, NJ: Lucerne, 1978, 1 videocassette (87 minutes), sound/color, 2 inch. Directed by Dick Friedenberg; produced by Bill Conford; teleplay by S. S. Schweitzer.
  3. “The Deerslayer,” videorecording Sunclassic Pictures. Morris Plains, NJ: Lucerne Films, 1978, 1 videocassette (43 minutes), sound/color, 2 inch VHS format. Directed by Dick Friedenberg. [edited version of the feature length video starring Steve Forrest, Ned Romero, John Anderson, and Victor Mohica]
  4. “The Deerslayer,” motion picture, Classics Illustrated, created by Charles E. Sellier, Jr. and James L. Conway. Morris Plains, NJ: Lucerne Films, 1978, 4 film reels (87 minutes), sound/color, 16 mm. Produced by Bill Cornford; directed by Dick Friedenberg; teleplay by S. S. Schweitzer.
  5. “The Deerslayer,” videorecording, Sun Classic Pictures. Tulsa, OK: Video Communications, 1978. 1 videocassette (91 minutes), sound/color, 2 inch, rated G. [Steve Forrest, Ned Romero, John Anderson; Hawkeye set out with his friend to rescue a beautiful kidnapped princess from the Huron Indians]
  6. “The Deerslayer,” videorecording, Lucerne Films, 1979. 1 videocassette (104 minutes [also a 43 min. Classic Stories Series version]), sound/color, : or 2 inch VHS format, 1978 motion picture. [Hawkeye and Chingachgook must travel through unfriendly wilderness and face bands of marauding Indians and treacherous Frenchmen to save the fort; this is the first part of the WQED mini-series “The Leatherstocking Tales”]
  7. “The Deerslayer,” videorecording, Magnum Entertainment, 1985. 1 videocassette (91 minutes), sound/color, 2 inch VHS format. [videocassette release of the 1978 motion picture]
  8. “The Deerslayer,” videorecording. Eatontown, NJ: Starmaker Entertainment, 1990. 1 videocassette (98 minutes), sound/color, 2 inch VHS format. [videocassette release of the 1978 motion picture directed by Dick Friedenberg with Steve Forest, Ned Romero, John Anderson]
  9. “The Deerslayer,” picture. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 19 — , 1 poster, color, 61 x 46 cm. [illustration by N. C. Wyeth]

Leatherstocking Tales

  1. “Leatherstocking Tales,” syndicated dramatic series based on the novels of James Fenimore Cooper, NBC, 39 episodes, 1930 Radio Serial of The Deerslayer (13 chapters) and The Last of the Mohicans with Hanley Stafford. [all 39 episodes are available: Swartz, p. 412]
  2. Smith, Henry Nash. “The Leatherstocking Tales,” videorecording, Lincoln, NB: New Perspectives, Nebraska Educational Council for Higher Education, 1970, 1 videocassette (30 minutes), sound, black & white, 3/4 inch
  3. Folsom, James K., Lecturer, Leatherstocking Tales, sound recording, Everett/Edwards, DeLand, FL, 1976, 1 cassette, (31 minutes), 4-track, mono.
  4. “James Fenimore Cooper’s Leatherstocking Tales,” videorecording. New York: Mastervision, 198-?, 1979, 2 videocassettes (60 minutes each), sound/color, 2 inch, Bill Bixby, host; directed by Nick Sgarro, John O’Toole, writer. [videocassette release of episodes of the PBS series, “Once Upon a Classic,” produced by WQED Pittsburgh, PA]
  5. “James Fenimore Cooper’s Leatherstocking Tales, I,” videorecording, directed by Nick Sgarro. New York: Mastervision Cassettes, 1984, 1 videocassette (60 minutes), sound/color, 2 inch VHS format. [WQED mini-series, “Deerslayer”]
  6. “James Fenimore Cooper’s Leatherstocking Tales, II,” videorecording, directed by Nick Sgarro. New York: Mastervision Cassettes, 1984, 1 videocassette (60 minutes), sound/color, 2 inch VHS format. [WQED mini-series, “Last of Mohicans”]
  7. “James Fenimore Cooper’s Leatherstocking Tales, III,” videorecording, directed by Nick Sgarro. New York: Mastervision Cassettes, 1984, 1 videocassette (60 minutes), sound/color, 2 inch BETA format.
  8. “James Fenimore Cooper’s Leatherstocking Tales, III,” videorecording, executive producer, Jay Rayvid; directed by Nick Sgarro; written by John O’Toole; Bill Bixby, host; with Cliff DeYoung, Ed Binns, and Earl Hindman; 1 videocassette (30 minutes), sound/color, 1/2 inch format. [reproduced from the archival original, housed in the Peabody Recording Center, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 1981]
  1. Kaiser, Joseph J. “Uncas (The Last of the Mohicans),” 5 pages, for piano, characteristic march, two-step. New York: Joseph J. Kaiser Publishing Company, 1904.
  2. “The Last of the Mohicans,” filmstrip, prepared and edited by M. & E. Teshnor. New York: Pictorial Events, 1941, 1 filmstrip, black and white, 35 mm.
  3. “The Last of the Mohicans,” filmstrip. Brunswick Productions, released by Educational Record Sales, 1968, approximately 55 frames, color, 35 mm. [examines the novel; with captions]
  1. “The Last of the Mohicans,” kit. West Haven CT: Pendulum Press, 1977, 1 answer key, 2 books, and 1 sound recording (cassette) in container 23 x 15 x 3 cm.
  2. “Last of the Mohicans,” Now Age Classic Series, West Haven, CT: Pendulum Press, 1977. [12 writers’ novels are adapted and appear in cartoon filmstrips and in comic book format; 1 paperback book, 1 poster, 1 filmstrip (76 frames), 1 sound cassette each, boxed]
  3. “The Last of the Mohicans,” filmstrip. Stamford, CT: Educational Dimensions Group, 1979, 2 rolls (80 frames each), color, 35 mm., 2 cassettes and teacher’s guide.
  4. “The Last of the Mohicans by James Fenimore Cooper,” filmstrip: a review of the novel, produced by Current Affairs. Belmont, CA: Fearon-Pitman Publishers, 1979, 1 filmstrip (65 frames), color, 35 mm., 1 sound cassette, 1 book (90 pages), 1 teacher’s guide (31 pages). [combines a critical review of the novel with background information about the times in which the book was written]
  5. “The Last of the Mohicans,” Videorecording, episode eight, dramatized by Harry Green; 1 videocassette, 45 minutes, black & white, 2 inch, 1980,1989, VHS, taped off-air with permission from Masterpiece Theatre.
  6. “The Last of the Mohicans,” kit. New York: King Features Syndicate [production company], released by Educational Enrichment Materials, 1979, 4 filmstrips (330 frames), color, 35 mm., 4 sound cassettes, 1 paperback (8 copies each) adapted by Dr. Marion Kimberly, 8 spirit duplicating masters, 1 teacher’s guide by Susan Kline in container 33 x 25 x 6 cm.
  7. “The Last of the Mohicans,” motion picture. Morris Plains, NJ: Lucerne Films, 1979, 4 reels (97 minutes), sound/color, 16 mm.
  8. “The Last of the Mohicans,” videorecording, Reel Images presents a Video Yesteryear recording. Philadelphia, PA: distributed by Movies Unlimited, 198-?, 2 videocassettes (231 minutes), sound, black & white, 2 inch VHS format. [12 episode 1932 Mascot serial with Harry Carey, Hobart Bosworth, Mischa Auer, Yakima Canutt]
  9. “The Last of the Mohicans,” videorecording. Morris Plains, NJ: Lucerne Films, 1980, 1 videocassette (99 minutes), sound/color: or 2 inch VHS format. [also a 46 min. Classic Stories Series version]
  10. Cole, Thomas. “Scene from The Last of the Mohicans,” (58 x 73 cm), Sandy Hook, CT: Shorewood Fine Art Reproductions, 1980, 1996.
  11. “The Last of the Mohicans,” videorecording, BBC-TV. New York: Time-Life Video, 1980, 13 videocassettes (27 minutes each), sound/color, issued as U-matic 3/4 inch or Beta II 2 inch or VHS 2 inch. [for sale: 3/4 inch $1200; 2 inch $1000]
  12. “The Last of the Mohicans,” videorecording, Reel images presents a Video Yesteryear recording. Monroe, CT: Reel Images, 1981, 2 videocassettes (231 minutes) sound, black & white, 2 inch VHS format, $39.95. [videocassette release of the 12 episode, 1932, Mascot Serial with Harry Carey, Hobart Bosworth, Mischa Auer, Yakima Canutt]
  13. “The Last of the Mohicans,” videorecording, United Artists. Hollywood, CA: Nostalgia Merchant, 1981, 1 videocassette (91 minutes), sound/black & white, 2 inch VHS format. [released in 1936 as a motion picture by United Artists with Randolph Scott, Bruce Cabot, Binnie Barnes, Henry Wilcoxon]
  14. “The Last of the Mohicans,” videorecording, United Artists. Monroe, CT: Video Images, 1981, 2 videocassettes (231 minutes), sound/color, 2 inch BETA format. [Harry Carey, Hobart Bosworth, Mischa Auer, Yakima Canutt]
  15. “The Last of the Mohicans,” 16mm film optical sound (91 minutes), United Artists, 1936, black & white. [distributed by Kit Parker Films]
  16. “The Last of the Mohicans,” motion picture, one videocassette, 60 minutes, black and white, silent, VHS format, 2 inch, Classic Video-Cinema Collector’s Club, 1984, 1920 silent film with music and English captions, introductory commentary.
  17. “The Last of the Mohicans,” videorecording, Schick Sunn Classic Productions. Los Angeles, CA: Magnum Entertainment, 1985, 1 videocassette (97 minutes), sound/color, 2 inch VHS format. [videocassette release of the 1977 movie; Steve Forrest, Ned Romero, Andrew Prine]
  18. “The Last of the Mohicans,” videorecording. Culver City, CA: Media Home Entertainment, 1985, 1 videocassette (91 minutes), sound/black & white, 2 inch VHS, $12.95.
  19. “The Last of the Mohicans,” picture. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1986, 1 poster, color, 61 x 46 cm. [illustration by N. C. Wyeth is titled: In the Council Lodge]
  20. “The Last of the Mohicans,” videorecording, United Artists. Hollywood, CA: Video Late Show, 1986, 1 videocassette (91 minutes), sound/black & white, 2 inch VHS format. [Randolph Scott, Bruce Cabot, Binnie Barnes]
  21. “The Last of the Mohicans,” videorecording, Burbank Films Australia, Northbrook, IL: Film Ideas, 1987, 1 videocassette (50 minutes) sound/color, 2 inch VHS format. [animated; music: Simon Walker; screenplay: Leonard Lee]
  22. “The Last of the Mohicans,” videorecording (51 minutes), Film Funding and Management PTY, LTD, 1987, Family Home Entertainment distributed by LIVE Home Video, Inc., Van Nuys: CA, 1992, 2 inch VHS format, screenplay by Leonard Lee. [animated Australian version]
  23. “The Last of the Mohicans,” videorecording, Hanna-Barbera Productions, Worldvision Home Video, Kids Klassics, 1987, 1 videocassette (49 minutes), sound/color, 2 inch VHS format. [videocassette release of the 1976 animated motion picture, animation director: Chris Cuddington; camera: Jan Cregan; voices by: Mike Road, Casey Kasem, John Doucette, Joan Van Ark, John Stephenson, Kristina Holland, Paul Hecht, and Frank Welker]
  24. “The Last of the Mohicans,” videorecording, distributed by Children’s Video of America, 1988, 1 videocassette (51 minutes), sound/color, 2 inch VHS format, a production of Burbank Films. [animated version of book]
  25. “The Last of the Mohicans,” videorecording, Hanna-Barbera Home Video, 1989, 1 videocassette (50 minutes), sound/color, 2 inch VHS format. [videocassette release of the 1976 motion picture, animated feature with voices of Mike Road, Casey Kasem, John Doucette, Joan Van Ark, Kristina Holland, Paul Hecht, Frank Welker]
  26. “The Last of the Mohicans,” videorecording, Video Images. Sandy Hook, CT: Video Images/Video Yesteryear, 1990, 2 videocassettes (231 minutes), sound/black & white, 2 inch VHS format. [videocassette release of the 1932 Mascot Serial (12 episodes) with Harry Carey, Hobart Bosworth, Mischa Auer, Yakima Canutt]
  27. “The Last of the Mohicans,” videorecording, Schick Sunn Classic Productions. Eatontown, NJ: Starmaker Entertainment, 1990, 1992, 1 videocassette (97 minutes), sound/color, 2 inch VHS format, rated G, $19.95. [videocassette release of the 1977 movie with Steve Forrest, Ned Romero, Andrew Prine]
  28. “The Last of the Mohicans,” videorecording, Tulsa, OK: Video Communications, Classic Cliffhanger Collection, 1991, 2 videocassettes (214 minutes), sound, black & white, 2 inch VHS format. [videocassette release of the 12 episode, 1932 serial by Mascot Pictures with Harry Carey, Hobart Bosworth, Junior Coghlan, Edwina Booth, Mischa Auer, Yakima Cannutt; different title listed for 1ˢᵗ episode: “Wild Waters” rather than “The Last of the Mohicans” for the citation below]
  29. “The Last of the Mohicans,” videorecording, Batavia, OH: Burbank Video, 1991, 1 videocassette (4 hours), sound, black & white, 2 inch VHS format. [videocassette release of the 12 episode 1932 serial (1ˢᵗ episode cited as “Last of the Mohicans” rather than “Unknown” in 1932 film listing); with Harry Carey, Edwina Booth, etc.]
  30. “Last of the Mohicans,” videorecording, Batavia, OH: Burbank Video, 1991, 2 videocassets (4 hours), sound, black & white, 2 inch, VHS. [the 1932 Mascot serial in twelve chapters]
  31. “Last of the Mohicans,” videorecording, Charlotte, NC: United American Video, 1991, 1 videocassette (91 minutes), black & white, VHS format. [director: George B. Seitz; cast: Randolph Scott, Binnie Barnes, Heather Angel, Hugh Buckler, Henry Wilsoxon, Bruce Cabot]
  32. “The Last of the Mohicans,” videorecording, Troy, MI: Video Treasures, 1992, 1 videocassette (91 minutes), sound, color, 2 inch VHS format. [color version of the 1936 film with Randolph Scott, Binnie Barnes]
  33. “The Last of the Mohicans,” videorecording, United Artists, Phoenix, AZ: Grapevine Video, 1992, 1 videocassette (91 minutes), sound, black & white, 2 inch VHS format, United Artists, Directed by George B. Seitz, producer: Edward Small, music: Roy Webb, photography: Robert Planck, writers: Philip Dunne et al. [videocassette release of the 1936 motion picture with Randolph Scott, Bruce Cabot, Binnie Barnes]
  34. “Last of the Mohicans,” videocassette, Hanna-Barbera Productions, distributed by Barr Films, 1992, color, 45 minutes, with teacher’s guide.
  35. School Library Journal, Review, “Last of the Mohicans” videocassette, 1992, Hanna-Barbera, Vol. 39, 7 (July, 1993), p. 45. [” ... women are shapely, perfectly coifed and made-up and the Indians are very orange. The non-stop musical orchestration sounds like a combination of muzak and ‘50s sitcom background instrumentation. The script leaves much to be desired with stilted dialogue. Animation has come a long way in the past decade, but this production hasn’t caught up with the trends.”]
  36. “The Last of the Mohicans,” trailer, Twentieth Century Fox, 1992, 1 reel (170 feet), sound, color, 35mm reference print.
  37. “Lou Diamond Phillips Performs The Last of the Mohicans,” Beverly Hills, CA: Dove Audio, 1992, 3 sound discs (3 hours), 4 3/4 inch, abridged, audiobook.
  38. “The Last of the Mohicans,” videorecording, 20ᵗʰ Century Fox, $94.98, 1992. [letter box format: film is nearly twice as wide as it is tall on TV screen, ie: there are black bands across the top and bottom that get a little smaller after the titles that run over the opening sequence]
  39. Jones, Trevor. “The Last of the Mohicans,” sound recording; original motion picture soundtrack, music by Trevor Jones & Randy Edelman, Clannad (musical group): Guy Dagal, Greig McRitchie, Dan Carlin, Ciaran Brennan, Los Angeles, CA: Morgan Creek Records, 1992, 1 sound cassette, analog, Dolby processed. [Jones composed tracks 1- 9; Edelman: tracts 10-15; last number “I Will Find You” written by Ciaran Brennan: Main Title, Elk Hunt, The Kiss, The Glade, Fort Battle, Promentory, Munro’s Office, Stockade — Massacre, Canoes, Top of the World, The Courier, Cora, River Walk and Discovery, Parlay, The British Arrival, Pieces of the Story, I Will Find You]
  40. ------. Ibid, 1 sound disc, digital, stereo, 4 3/4 inch.
  41. ------. “Main Title,” Secaucus, NJ: Warner Brothers Publications, 1992, 1 page music for piano solo with chord symbols and guitar chord diagrams. Cover illustration: photograph of Daniel Day-Lewis.
  42. ------. “Main Title from The Last of the Mohicans,” Secaucus, NJ: Warner Brothers, 1992. Three pages, sheet music for piano solo with chord symbols and guitar chord diagrams. Cover illustration: photo of Daniel Day-Lewis.
  43. “The Last of the Mohicans,” recording, 13 sound cassettes (12 hours each), read by Wolfram Kandinsky, Ashland, OR: Blackstone Audio Books, 1993. [unabridged]
  44. “The Last of the Mohicans,” videorecording, Denver, CO: Lumivision Corporation in association with International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House, 1993, 1 videodisc (74 minutes), sound: silent feature film with music sound track (digital stereo surround sound), black & white, color tinted, English subtitles. [Associated Producers 1920 film directed by Maurice Tourneur and Clarence Brown with Wallace Berry, Barbara Bedford, Albert Roscoe, Lillian Hall, Harry Lorraine, Theodore Lerch; also issued as a VHS cassette (72 minutes), black and white, color tints, New York: Milestone Film & Video]
  45. “The Last of the Mohicans,” recording, 5 sound cassettes (15 hours), analog, read by Bill Weideman, Grand Haven, MI: Brilliance Corporation, 1993. [Classic Collection, unabridged; also issued in a Library Edition in 10 sound cassettes (15 hours), unabridged]
  46. “The Last of the Mohicans,” videorecording, Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation, Special wide screen edition, Beverly Hills: CA, FoxVideo, 1993, 1 videodisc, (113 minutes, laser optical), sound, color, 12 inch, extended play CLV, Dolby surround stereo, digital sound, CX encoded, Rated R., closed captioned for the hearing impaired. [Daniel Day-Lewis, Madeleine Stowe, 1992 motion picture, Michael Mann, director, music: Trevor Jones, Randy Edelman, photography: Dante Schmidt, producers: Michael Mann, Hunt Lowry]
  47. Hettrick, Scott. “Letterbox format suits `Mohicans’ epic just fine,” The Kansas City Star, (March 12, 1993), p. G-12. [Fox videorecording ($94.98) has black bands at top and bottom of TV screen]
  48. “Last of the Mohicans,” videorecording, Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities & Sciences, 1993, 1 videocassette (28 Minutes) sound, color, 2 inch VHS format; director: Tom Naughton; producers: Tom Naughton & Nicolas Valcour; produced in association with Archaeology Magazine. [Archaeololgists working at the site of Fort William Henry have uncovered remains of numerous English soldiers. “Although the war took its toll, infectious diseases may have been the final vector of death.”]
  49. “The Last of the Mohicans,” videorecording, Beverly Hills, CA: FoxVideo, 1992, 1993, 1 videocassette (114 minutes), sound, color, 2 inch VHS, subtitled in Spanish, closed-captioned for the hearing impaired.
  50. “The Last of the Mohicans,” videorecording, Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation, Evanston, IL, 1993, distributed by Viewfinders, Inc., 1 videocassette (114 minutes), sound, color, ½ inch format, Hi-fi Dolby surround stero, mono compatible, wide screen format.
  51. “Hawkeye,” videorecording, Stephen J. Cannell Productions, New World Entertainment, Good Times Home Video, 1995, 1 videocassette (82 minutes), sound, color, 2 inch VHS. Part 1 directed by Brad Turner; part 2 directed by James Contner; created and written by Kim LeMasters; music: Joel Goldsmith; photography: Benton Spencer; editors: Lynne Willingham and Chris G. Willingham; executive producers: David Levinson and Stephen J. Cannell; with Lee Horsley, Lynda Carter, Rodney A. Grant, Duncan Fraser. [pilot episode]

Last of the Redmen

  1. “Last of the Redmen,” motion picture, Columbia Pictures Corporation, 1947, 3 reels (77 minutes), sound, black & white, 16mm. [director: George Sherman; screenplay Herbert Dalmas and George H. Plympton; producer: Sam Katzman with Jon Hall, Michael O’Shea, Evelyn Ankers, Julie Bishop (Jacqueline Wells), Buster Crabbe, and Rick Vallin.
    SynopsisStory line: led into an ambush by a renegade Iroquois, a small band of whites escapes death only because the last of the Mohicans sacrifices his life for theirs.
  2. “Last of the Redmen,” videorecording, Columbia Pictures, director: George Sherman, Burbank, CA: Columbia TriStar Home Video, 1992, 1 videocassette (79 minutes), sound, color, 2 inch VHS, not rated, $19.95. [originally released as a motion picture in 1947]

The Spy

  1. “The Spy,” Washington, D.C.: National Public Radio, 1981, radio play, 1 cassette (59 minutes), 7/8 ips, mono; director: Timothy Jerome. [broadcast July 4, 1981 on NPR]

Selected Bibliography

  1. The Academy of Motion Picture Arts & Sciences and The Writers Guild of America, West. who wrote the movie and what else did he write? Los Angeles, CA, 1970, pp. 314, 360, 363, 365.
  2. Adams, Les and Rainey, Buck. Shoot-em-ups The Complete Reference Guide to Westerns of the Sound Era. New York: Arlington House, 1978, p. 72 (“The Last of the Mohicans” 1932); pp. 142-143 (“The Last of the Mohicans” 1936); p. 291 (“Deerslayer” 1943); p. 357 (“The Prairie” 1947); p. 432 (“The Pathfinder” 1953).
  3. Agate, James. “Red Indians Again,” Around Cinemas (second series). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Home & Van Thal, 1948, pp. 132-134. [1936 reprint from The Tatler on “Last of the Mohicans”]
  4. Agee, James. Agee On Film, 2 Vols. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1967, Vol. 1, p. 61.
  5. Allan, Elkan, ed. A Guide to World Cinema. Detroit, MI: Gale Research, 1985, p. 307 (Seitz’s “Last of the Mohicans”). [from the programmes of the 1950-1984 National Film Theatre, London]
  6. Anderson, Carolyn, “Film and Literature, ” in Edgerton, Gary R., ed. Film and the Arts in Symbiosis. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988, p. 100.
  7. Axeen, David. “Eastern Western,” Film Quarterly, Vol. 32, 4 (Summer 1979), pp. 17-18. [compares Mike, the central character in Michael Cimino’s “The Deer Hunter” with Cooper’s Natty Bumppo]
  8. Barker, Martin, “First and Last Mohicans,” Sight and Sound, Vol. 3, 8 (August 1, 1993), pp. 26-29. [“Why has ‘The Last of the Mohicans’ been the subject of so many films and comic books?”]
  9. Barker, Martin and Sabin, Roger. The Lasting of the Mohicans History of an American Myth. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 1995.
  10. Baskin, Ellen and Kicken, Mandy, compilers. Enser’s Filmed Books and Plays. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate Publishing, 1987, pp. 456-457.
  11. Bataille, Gretchen M. and Silet, Charles L. P. Images of American Indians on Film. New York: Garland, 1985, pp. 33, 119 (1936 “Last of the Mohicans”); p. 193 (1977 “Last of the Mohicans”); p. 127 (“Last of the Redmen”); p. 141 (1952 “Pathfinder”)
  12. Blum, Daniel. A Pictorial History of the Silent Screen. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1953, p. 189
  13. ------. A NEW Pictorial History of the Talkies, revisions by John Kobal. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1958. p. 8.
  14. Bodeen, Dewitt. “Wallace Reid,” Films in Review, 17, 4 (April 1966), pp. 205-230. [numerous stills of Reid; lists his 171 films]
  15. Bold, Christine. “How the Western Ends: Fenimore Cooper to Frederick Remington,” Western American Literature, 17, 2 (August, 1982), pp. 117-135. [shows similarities of elements of Western author’s stories with Cooper’s]
  16. Bowser, Eileen, introduction. Biograph Bulletins 1908-1912. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, Octagon Books, 1973, p. 128 (“Leather Stocking”). [the “bulletins” were broadsides printed to advertise the product and to be thrown away; provides detailed plot summaries written by Biograph staff member Lee Dougherty of the early D. W. Griffith films]
  17. The Transformation of Cinema 1907-1915, Vol. 2 of Harpole, Charles, general editor. History of the American Cinema, 3 Vols. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1990, p. 241. [1913 “The Deerslayer”]
  18. Brooks, Tim and Marsh, Earle. The Complete Directory to Prime Time Network and Cable TV Shows 1946-Present, 6ᵗʰ Ed. New York: Ballantine Books, 1995.
  19. Brown, Gene, Editor. New York Times Encyclopedia of Film, 13 Vols. New York: Times Books, 1984.
  20. Brownlow, Kevin. “Clarence Brown,” in Brownlow, K. The Parade’s Gone By. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1968, pp. 142-144. [1920 LOM]
  21. Burgess, Anthony. “Said Mr. Cooper to His Wife: `You Know, I Could Write Something Better Than That,’” New York Times Magazine Section (May 7, 1972), pp. 108, 112-115. [British novelist and critic looks at Cooper’s Leatherstocking Tales; “The gifts of our colors may be different, but God has so placed us as to journey in the same path.” Chingachgook and Hawkeye, hands clasped, weeping, standing over Uncas’ grave: “May that image go on haunting the American people.”]
  22. Buscombe, Edward, ed. The BFI Companion to the Western. New York: Atheneum, 1988, p. 404 (“Deerslayer”), p. 411 (1971 & 1977 “Last of the Mohicans”).
  23. Butler, Michael D. “Sons of Oliver Edwards; or, The Other American Hero,” Western American Literature, XII, 1 (Spring, 1977), pp. 53-66. [the changing character of Natty and Oliver Edwards in film and literature]
  24. Calder, Jenni. There Must Be a Lone Ranger The American West in Film and in Reality. New York: Taplinger Publishing, 1975, pp. 3, 38-40, 93.
  25. Catalog of Copyright Entries Cumulative Series Motion Pictures 1912-1939. Washington, DC: Copyright Office, The Library of Congress, 1951. [“Leatherstocking,” p. 464] also “The Last Mohican,” Columbia Pictures 9 minutes, sound B&W, 35mm.
  26. Catalog Historical Films, 1894-1915. Hollywood, CA: Historical Films, 1968, p. 31. [first generation 16mm negatives rephotographed directly from the 35mm for sale at $.10 a foot; The 1909 “Leather Stocking” was listed with 372 feet of 16mm footage]
  27. Cawelti, John G. “Cowboys Indians Outlaws,” American West, Vol. 1, 2 (Spring 1964), pp. 28-35, 77-79. [Greatest literary monument to the legendary West is Cooper’s Leatherstocking Series, published between 1823 and 1841. p. 33]
  28. “Myths of Violence in American Popular Culture,” Critical Inquiry, 1, 3 (March 1975), pp. 521-541.
  29. “Cooper and the Beginnings of the Western Formula,” in Cawelti, J. G. Adventure, Mystery, and Romance: Formula Stories as Art and Popular Culture. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1976, pp. 194-209, passim.
  30. The Six-Gun Mystique, 2ⁿᵈ ed. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1984, pp. 15, 17, 61-64, 69, 72-73, 89-91, 116-7, 143, passim.
  31. “Cooper and the Frontier Myth and Anti-Myth,” Dutch Quarterly Review, Vol. 20, 3 (1990), pp. 177-186. [James Fenimore Cooper Issue]
  32. Commire, Anne, ed. Something about the Author. Detroit, MI: Gale Research Company, 64 Vols., 1980, Vol. 19, pp. 68-92. [illustrations from “Last of the Mohicans,” 1936; “The Pathfinder,” 1953; “The Last of the Redmen,” 1947; and “The Deerslayer,” 1957]
  33. Connelly, Robert B. The Motion Picture Guide Silent Film 1910 -1936. Chicago, IL: Cinebooks, 1986, p. 145 (“The Last of the Mohicans”); p. 339 (“The Deerslayer”); p. 415 (“The Spy”).
  34. Cooke, Alistair. “Masterpiece Theatre Chronology,” Masterpieces: A Decade of Masterpiece Theatre. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1981.
  35. Cooper, James Fenimore. The Deerslayer, or, the First Warpath. James Beard, Historical introduction and explanatory notes. Text established by Lance Schachterle, Kent Ljungquist and James Kilby. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1987. [The Writings of James Fenimore Cooper]
  36. Davidson, Bill. “America Discovers a `Sacred Monster’,” New York Times (September 22, 1974). [Charles Bronson will do a remake of “The Last of the Mohicans,” once played by Bronson’s idol Wallace Berry, after he finishes “Hard Times“(1975)]
  37. Dimmitt, Richard Bertrand. A Title Guide To the Talkies, 2 Vols. New York: The Scarecrow Press, 1965, p. 385 (“Deerslayer”), p. 919 (“The Last of the Mohicans”), p. 920 (“The Last of the Redman”), p. 1294 (“The Pathfinder”), p. 1320 (“The Pioneers”), p. 1337 (“The Prairie”). [source for author and title of work on which film was based]
  38. Drew, Bernard A. Motion Picture Series and Sequels, New York: Garland, 1990, pp. 196-97.
  39. Dunne, Philip. Take Two A life in Movies and Politics. NY: McGraw Hill, 1980, pp. 33, 35-36, 386.
  40. Encyclopaedia Britannica Films, “James Fenimore Cooper,” 1958. [filmstrip]
  41. Engel, Leonard W. “Sam Peckinpah’s Heroes: Natty Bumppo and the Myth of the Rugged Individual Still Reign,” Literature/ Film Quarterly, 16, 1 (1988), pp. 22-30. [compares The Prairie and The Deerslayer to Peckinpah’s western films]
  42. “Space and Enclosure in Cooper and Peckinpah: Regeneration in the Open Spaces,” Journal of American Culture, 14, 2 (Summer, 1991), pp. 86-93. [regeneration in Cooper’s novels and Peckinpah’s film “The Wild Bunch”]
  43. Enser, A. G. S. Filmed Books and Plays A List of Books and Plays from which Films have been Made, 1928-1974. London: Andre Deutsh, 1968, pp. 274, 513.
  44. Ibid, 1928-1986, Hampshire, England: Gower, 1985, pp. 155, 393, 718, 719.
  45. Erickson, Hal. Syndicated Television The First Forty Years, 1974-1987. Jefferson, NC & London: McFarland & Company, 1989, pp. 29, 260.
  46. Etulain, Richard. “Origins of the Western,” Journal of Popular Culture, V, 4 (Spring 1972), pp. 799-805. [“The Western also continued an American melodramatic tradition that had appeared earlier in such sources as the writing of James Fenimore Cooper ... “]
  47. Etuklain, Richard W. “The Western,” in Inge, M(ilton) Thomas, Handbook of American Popular Culture, 3 Vols. London, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1978, Vol. 1, pp. 356-376.
  48. Everson, William K. A Pictorial History of the Western Film. New York: Citadel Press, 1969, pp. 88, 169.
  49. ------. American Silent Film. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978, pp. 69, 150-151 (“Last of the Mohicans”), p. 240 (“Leatherstocking”). [between pages 246 and 247: two stills of “natural” arch of rock used to frame action in Tourneur’s “Last of the Mohicans”]
  50. Fenin, George N. and Everson, William K. The Western from Silents to the Seventies. New York: Grossman Publishers, 1973, pp. 166, 315, 325.
  51. Folsom, James K. “James Fenimore Cooper: The Materials of Western Story,” in Folsom, J. K. The American Western Novel. New Haven, CT: College and University Press, 1966, pp. 36-59. [the “combination of the novel of action with the novel of reflection is Cooper’s greatest single legacy to subsequent western story ... “]
  52. “Precursors of the Western Novel,” in Taylor, J. Golden, Ed. A Literary History of the American West. Fort Worth, TX: Texas Christian University Press, 1987, pp. 141-51.
  53. ------, ed. The Western, A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1979, p. 172.
  54. Franklin, Joe. Classics of the Silent Screen A Pictorial Treasury. New York: Citadel Press, 1959, pp. 42-43, 253.
  55. Frayling, Christopher. Spagetti Westerns Cowboys and Europeans from Karl May to Sergio Leone. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1981, pp. 29, 113, 261.
  56. Friar, Ralph E. and Natasha A. The Only Good Indian ... The Hollywood Gospel. New York: Drama Book Specialists, 1972, pp. 9-10, 144-145, passim. [still of Wallace Beery as Magua (with socks rolled down) and other Indians from the 1920 film “Last of the Mohicans,” p. 145; still of Seitz’s 1936 “Last of the Mohicans,” p. 187]
  57. Garfield, Brian. Western Films. New York: Rawson Associates, 1982, pp. 146, 210, 211, 257.
  58. Gianakos, Larry James.sp; Television Drama Series Programming: A Comprehensive Chronicle, 1959-1975. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1978, p. 683 (“Last of the Mohicans”).
  59. Ibid, 1975-1980, p. 372-373. (“Hawkeye and the Last of the Mohicans”)
  60. Ibid, 1982-1984, p. 425 (“The Pathfinder”).
  61. Graham, Cooper C., Higgins, Steven, Mancini, Elaine, and Viera, João Luiz. D. W. Griffith and the Biograph Company. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1985, p. 61.
  62. Grant, Barry K., ed. Film Genre: Theory and Criticism. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1977, pp. 200-201, 207, 108.
  63. Greenberg, Alvin. The Invention of the West. New York: Avon Books, 1976.
  64. Griffith, D. W. Mrs. (Linda Arvidson). “Cuddebackville,” in Griffith, D. W. When the Movies were Young. New York: Benjamine Blom, 1925, pp. 120-123. [Mrs. Griffith tells how they found a genuine pre-revolutionary stone house they used in “Leather Stocking,” a gentle horse named “Mother” [she had never ridden until this film], and the “Indians” (men and the “girls who ‘did’ Indians”) cleaning off the brown bolamenia from their legs and arms before a plunge in the cool waters of the Big Basin]
  65. Halliwell, Leslie. Halliwell’s Film Guide. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1985, p. 559.
  66. Hardy, Phil. The Aurum Film Encyclopedia The Western, Vol. 1. London: Aurum Press, 1983, p. 61 (“Last of the Mohicans”), p. 135 (“Deerslayer”), p. 291 (“The Last Tomahawk”).
  67. Harkness, John. “White Noise,” Sight and Sound (UK), Vol. 2, 7 (November 1992), p. 15. [Cooper is not a great figure in American literature ... because of plot or dialogue. ... Rather his novels endure because their plots and dialogue are the wrappings that cover dark secrets and terrible things. In Cooper, one finds the origins of the obsessions of American culture (the ambivalent balance between civilization and the unknown West; the isolated hero). Mark Twain may have written one of the most scathing attacks on Cooper ... but what is Huckleberry Finn but the boy version of Cooper’s Hawkeye ... ?]
  68. Harmon, Jim and Glut, Donald F. The Great Movie Serials Their Sound and Fury. New York: Doubleday, 1972, pp. 323-325.
  69. Harris, Edward. “Cooper on Stage,” Cooperstown, NY: James Fenimore Cooper Society Electronic Series, No. 1, 1997. [on this website]
  70. Hilger, Michael. The American Indian in Film. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1986, passim.
  71. Hitt, Jim. The American West from Fiction (1823-1976) into Film (1909-1986). Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, pp. 2-3, 9-12, 26, 120, 310-311.
  72. Horak, Jan-Christopher. “Maurice Tourneur’s Tragic Romance,” in Peary, Gerald and Shatzkin, Roger, eds. The Classic American Novel and Movies. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Company, 1977, pp. 10-19. [p. 13: a still of Uncas, Cora, Hawkeye and Chingachgook holding the line of defense as Heyward looks on as Alice ministers to David Gamut from the 1920 “Last of the Mohicans”]
  73. Horak, Jan-Christopher. “Essay on The Last of the Mohicans” in Weber, Alfred and Friedl, Bettina, eds. Film und Literatur in America. Darmstadt: Germany: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellchaft, 1988, pp. 119-134. [LOM is “one of the greatest literature/film adaptations of the silent era”]
  74. The International Dictionary of Films and Filmmakers, 5 Vols. Chicago, IL: St. James Press, 1984.
  75. J., W. H. “The Last of the Mohicans and the Cinema,” Notes & Queries, [London], 185 (July 3, 1943), pp. 9-10.
  76. Jones, Daryl Emrys. The Dime Novel Western. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1978, p. 37. [the comic “sidekick” as descend from Cooper’s David Gamut]
  77. ------ . “The Dime Novel Western: The Evolution of a Popular Formula,” Michigan State University, 1974. Dissertation Abstracts International, 36/01A, p. 274.
  78. Jowett, Garth S. “The Concept of History in American Produced Films: an Analysis of the Films Made in the Period 1950-1961,” Journal of Popular Culture, III, 4 (Spring 1970), pp. 799-813. [“Neither of the two Cooper stories were very faithful to the originals.” “The Pathfinder” (1952); “The Deerslayer” (1957)]
  79. Kinnard, Roy. Fifty Years of Serial Thrills. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1983, p. 20 (Pathé: 10 episode “Leatherstocking”); p. 56 (Mascot Studio: 12 episode “Last of the Mohicans”).
  80. Klisz, Anjanelle M. The Video Source Book, 2 Vols., 16 edition, 1995, Detroit, MI: Gale Research, 1994, p. 709 (1978: “The Deerslayer,”); p. 1583 (1920: “Last of the Mohicans”), (1932: “Last of the Mohicans”), (1936: “Last of the Mohicans”), (1985: “Last of the Mohicans”), (1992 animated: “Last of the Mohicans”), (1992: “Last of the Mohicans”), (1947: “Last of the Redmen”); p. 2165 (1941: “The Pioneers”)
  81. Lahue, Kalton C. Continued Next Week A History of the Moving Picture Serial. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1964, p. 242.
  82. Langman, Larry. Writers on the American Screen A Guide to Film Adaptations of American and Foreign Literary Works. New York: Garland Publishing, 1986, p. 46.
  83. Langman, Larry and Borg, Ed. Encyclopedia of American War Films. New York: Garland Publishing, 1989, pp. 150-151, 329-331, 425, 545.
  84. Langman, Larry and Ebner, David. Encyclopedia of American Spy Films. New York: Garland Publishing, 1990, pp. 347-348, 435.
  85. Lauritzen, Einar and Lundquist, Gunnar. American Film-Index 1916-1920, 2 Vols. Stockholm, Sweden: University of Stockholm, 1976, 1984, Vol. 2, p. 261.
  86. Lee, Robert E. From West to East Studies in the Literature of the American West. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1966, p. 59.
  87. Lentz III, Harris M. Western and Frontier Film and Television Credits 1903-1995. Vol. 2. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, 1966, pp. 1229, 1230,1630, 1631.
  88. Leyda, Jay, ed. Voices of Film Experience 1894 to the Present. New York: Macmillan Publishing, 1977, pp. 50-51. [same 1965, 1966 interview with Clarence Brown as in Brownlow]
  89. Limbacher, James L. Feature Films A Directory of Feature Films on 16mm and Videotape Available for Rental, Sale, and Lease. New York: R. R. Bowker, 1985, p. 124 (1923, 1957, 1979 “Deerslayer”); p. 286 (1920, 1979 “Last of the Mohicans”); p. 394 (1954 “Pathfinder”); p. 403 (1941 “Pioneers); p. 409 (1948 “Prairie”).
  90. Magill, Frank Northern., ed. Magill’s Survey of Cinema Silent Films, 3 Vols. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Salem Press, 1922, Vol. 2, pp. 650-653. [Tourneur’s 1920 “Last of the Mohicans” has been preserved at the International Museum of Photography, George Eastman House, Rochester, NY]
  91. Maltin, Leonard. Leonard Maltin’s 1999 Movie & Video Guide. New York: A Plume Book, a division of Penguin Putnam, 1998 pp. 322, 757, 1042.
  92. Mann, Michael Kenneth. Screenplay, 117 leaves. [adapted by Michael Mann and Christopher Crowe] “Last of the Mohicans, “based on the novel by James Fenimore Cooper and the 1936 screenplay by Philip Dunne,” 2ⁿᵈ draft: July 31, 1990, includes revised leaves dated November 29, 1990 through June 11, 1991; released by 20ᵗʰ Century Fox, 1992. [The film won an Oscar at the 65ᵗʰ annual Academy Award Ceremony for “Best Sound,” March 29, 1992]
  93. Marill, Alvin H. Movies Made for Television The Telefeature and The Mini-Series 1964-1986. New York: Baseline, 1987.
  94. Martin, Len D. The Columbia Checklist. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1991, pp. 179-80, 260.
  95. Merlock, Raymond J. “From Flintlock to Forty-five: James Fenimore Cooper and the Popular Western Tradition in Fiction and Film,” Ohio University, 1981. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42, 08, 3602A. [the building blocks of the Western are all found in The Leatherstocking Tales]
  96. Theater Arts Library University of California Los Angeles. Motion Pictures: A Catalog of Books, Periodicals, Screenplays, Television Scripts and Production Stills. Boston, MA: G. K. Hall, 1976, p. 561 (1957 “The Deerslayer:” stills, color proofs/proofsheets); p. 634 (1936 “The Last of the Mohicans:” study guide).
  97. Munden, Kenneth W., ed. The American Film Institute Catalogue: Feature Films 1911-1920. New York: R.R. Bowker, 1971, p. 503 (“Last of the Mohicans); pp. 880-881 (“The Spy”).
  98. ------ , ed. The American Film Institute Catalogue: Feature Films 1921-1930. New York: R. R. Bowker, 1971, p. 176 (“The Deerslayer”).
  99. Nachbar, Jack, ed. Focus on the Western. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1974, pp. 10, 12-13, 21, 58, 62, 66.
  100. Nachbar, John G. Western Films: An Annotated Critical Bibliography. New York: Garland, 1975, pp. xii, 96.
  101. Nachbar, Jack, Donath, Jackie R. and Foran, Chris. Western Films 2 An Annotated Critical Bibliography from 1947 to 1987. New York: Garland Publishing, 1988, pp. 224, 242, 252, 264.
  102. Nash, Jay Robert and Ross, Stanley Ralph. The Motion Picture Guide, 10 Vols. Chicago: Cinebooks, 1986, Vol. II, p. 613 (“Deerslayer”); Vol. V, p. 1615 (“Last of the Mohicans” and “Last of the Redmen”); Vol. VI, p. 2355-6 (“The Pathfinder”), p. 2404 (“The Pioneers”), p. 2444(“The Pathfinder”).
  103. Niver, Kemp R. Motion Pictures from the Library of Congress Paper Print Collection 1894-1912. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1967, p. 198. [ 372 feet, 16 mm: 1909 “Leatherstocking”]
  104. ------. Early Motion Pictures The Paper Print Collection in the Library of Congress. Washington, D. C.: Library of congress, 1985, p. 181.
  105. Parish, James Rolbert and Leonard, William T. Hollywood Players The Thirties. New Rochelle, NY: Arlington House, 1976, pp. 54, 113,142, 143. [full page still of Randolph Scott and Binnie Barnes in 1936 “Last of the Mohicans”]
  106. Parish, James Robert and Pitts, Michael R. Film Directors: A Guide to Their American Films. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1974.
  107. The Great Western Pictures. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1976, pp.180-183. [“Still on the production charts is a new version of “Last of the Mohicans” to be produced in Europe and starring that box-office champ, Charles Bronson,” A still of Barbara Bedford, Albert Roscoe, Harry Lorraine and Lillian Hall in Tourneur’s 1920 film “The Last of the Mohicans” p. 181]
  108. The Great Western Pictures II. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1988, pp. 90-92, 185. [still of Lex Barker and Rita Moreno in the 1957 film “Deerslayer ” p. 91; still of Steve Forrest and Don Shanks in the 1977 film “The Last of the Mohicans” p. 186]
  109. Parkinson, Michael and Jeavons, Clyde. A Pictorial History of Westerns. New York: Hamlyn, 1972, p.130, 195.
  110. Parks, Reuben W. “The Process of Interpretation: a Study of the Cinematic Adaptions of James Fenimore Cooper’s The Last of the Mohicans,” University of Southwestern Louisiana, 1993. [Thesis (Honors Baccalaureate Degree)]
  111. Peyton, Robert L. “Western Justice: The Politics of Fenimore Cooper, Owen Wister and the Western Movies,” University of California, Berkely, 1980. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42, 01, 367A.
  112. Pitts, Michael R. Western Movies A TV and Video Guide to 4200 Genre Films. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, 1986, p. 101 (“Deerslayer”), p. 217-218 (“The Last of the Mohicans” and “The Last of the Redmen”), p. 304 (“The Pathfinder” and “The Pathfinder and the Mohican”).
  113. Pratt, George C. Spellbound in Darkness A History of the Silent Film, Greenwich, CT: New York Graphic Society, 1973, pp. 280-281. [1921 “Last of the Mohicans”]
  114. Pye, Douglas. “Genre and Movies,” Movie, 20 (Spring 1975), pp. 29-43 also in Grant, Barry K., ed. Film Genre: Theory and Criticism. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1977, pp. 195-211. [traces the development of the Western genre from Cooper and the dime novel]
  115. Rainey, Buck. Saddle Aces of the Cinema. San Diego, CA: Barnes, 1980, p. 139. [1932: “Last of the Mohicans”]
  116. Robinson, David. Hollywood in the Twenties. New York: A. S. Barnes, 1968, pp. 91,108, 109.
  117. Ross, Harris. Film as Literature, Literature as Film. New York: Greenwood Press, 1987, p. 130.
  118. Rutherford, Paul. When Television Was Young: Primetime Canada 1952-1967. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press, 1990, p. 376.
  119. Sarf, Wayne Michael. God Bless You, Buffalo Bill A Layman’s Guide to History and the Western Film. East Brunswick, NJ: Associated University Presses and Cornwall Books, 1983, p. 192, n. 15, 201.
  120. Schutz, Wayne. The Motion Picture Serial. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1992. [Pathé Exchange: “Leatherstocking,” pp. 15, 33; Mascot Pictures: “Last of the Mohicans,” pp. 58, 94]
  121. Scott, Kenneth W. “Hawk-eye in Hollywood: A James Fenimore Cooper Hero Still Awaits a Truly Appreciative Producer,” Films in Review, New York: National Board of Review of Motion Pictures, Vol. 9, 10, 1958, pp. 575-579.
  122. Sherman, Robert G. Quiet on the Set! Motion Picture History at the Iverson Movie Location Ranch. Chatsworth, CA: Sherway Publishing, 1984, p. 32.
  123. Sklar, Robert. Film an International History of the Medium. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1993, p. 103. [two stills from 1920 LOM: top one same as Horack, p. 13; bottom still: silhouette of Indian standing on rock]
  124. Slide, Anthony. Aspects of American Film History Prior to 1920. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1978, p. 71. [Thanhouser’s 1911 “The Last of the Mohicans”]
  125. ------, The Big V A History of the Vitagraph Company. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1976, p. 173.
  126. ------, ed. Selected Film Criticism, 7 Vols. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1982, Vol. I, p. 59, Vol. II, p. 157.
  127. Slotkin, Richard. Regeneration Through Violence: The Mythology of the American Frontier, 1600-1860. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1973.
  128. Smith, Henry Nash. Virgin Land: The American West as Symbol and Myth. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1950, New York: Vintage Books, 1957, passim.
  129. Sonnichsen, Charles Leland. From Hopalong to Hud Thoughts on Western Fiction. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 1978, pp. 66, 168.
  130. Stewart, John, compiler. Filmarama The Formidable Years, 1893-1919. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1975, Vol. I, pp. 215, 300, 334, 356, 374.
  131. Ibid, 1977, Vol. II, pp. 655, 656.
  132. Sultanik, Aaron. Film a Modern Art. New York: Cornwall Books, 1986, p. 98-99.
  133. Swartz, Jon D. and Reinehr, Robert C. Handbook of Old-Time Radio A Comprehensive Guide to Golden Age Radio Listening and Collecting. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1993, p. 412.
  134. Talbot, Daniel, ed. Film: An Anthology. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1967, pp. 169, 299.
  135. Terrace, Vincent. Encyclopedia of Television Series, Pilots and Specials, 1937-1973. New York: Zoetrope, 1985, Vol. I.
  136. Thomas, Tony. The Great Adventure Films. Secaucus. NJ: Citadel Press, 1976.
  137. Tuska, Jon. “The Vanishing Legion A Mascot Serial in Twelve Chapters,” Views & Reviews, Vol. 3, 4 (1972), pp. 22-29. [lists credits; cast, and detailed description of each chapter]
  138. The Vanishing Legion: A History of Mascot Pictures 1927-1935. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1982, pp. 64, 73-82, 104, 181, 182, 195.
  139. The American West in Film: Critical Approaches to the Western. Westport, CT, Greenwood Press, 1985, pp. 9, 56, 201, 241-243, 257.
  140. Vahimagi, Tise, compiler. British Television: An Illustrated Guide, 2ⁿᵈ ed., New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, pp. 65, 197.
  141. Van Doren, Mark. The Private Reader Selected Articles & Reviews. New York: Henry Holt, 1942, p. 340.
  142. Variety Film Reviews: 1907-1980, 16 Vols. New York: Garland Press, 1983.
  143. Variety’s Complete Home Video Directory 1989. New York: R. R. Bowker, 1989, p. 170 (“The Deerslayer”), p. 367 (“The Last of the Mohicans”).
  144. Wagenknecht, Edward. The Movies in the Age of Innocence. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1962, p. 45 (“Deerslayer”), p. 213 (“The Last of the Mohicans”).
  145. Wakeman, John. World Film Directors 1890-1945. New York: H. W. Wilson, 1987, pp. 64, 1238.
  146. Walker, Jeffrey, “Deconstructing and American Myth: Hollywood and the Last of the Mohicans,” Film & History Vol. 23, 1&4 (February 1, 1993), pp. 104-116.
  147. Walker, John, ed. Halliwell’s Film & Video Guide, Rev. NY: Harper Perennial, 1999.
  148. Walls, Howard Lamarr. Motion Pictures, 1894-1912 Identified from the Records of the United States Copyright Office. Washington, DC: Library of Congress Copyright Office, 1953.
  149. Weaver, John T. Twenty Years of Silents 1908-1928. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1971, pp. 300, 352, 437, 476, 493. [lists: the players, their films, and their vital statistics; directors and producers, their credits, and their vital statistics; silent film studio corporations and distributors]
  150. Weaver, J. V. A. “Fenimore Cooper, Comic,” The Bookman, 59 (March, 1924), pp. 13-15. [Last of Mohicans is a burlesque: “Such are the materials from which will evidently be made, and soon, we trust, one of the slapstick masterpieces of the silver screen. Let us hope for an all star cast. Let us suggest Louise Fazenda and Mabel Normand for Cora and Alice; Harold Lloyd for Magua; Bull Montana for Chingachgook; Charlie Chaplin for Munro; Buster Keaton for Uncas; and Ben Turpin for Hawkeye. Only so thoroughly capable a company can do justice to this novel’s antic possibilities.”]
  151. Weiss, Ken and Goodgold, Ed. To Be Continued. ... New York: Crown Publishers, 1972, p. 335. [“A complete list of sound serials arranged alphabetically by year” with studio]
  152. Welch, Jeffery Egan. Literature and Film An Annotated Bibliography, 1909 - 1977. New York: Garland, 1981, pp. 57, 171.
  153. Wheaton, Christopher D. and Jewell, Richard B., compilers. Primary Cinema Resources: An Index to Screenplays, Interviews and Special Collections at the University of Southern California. Boston, MA: G. K. Hall, 1975, p. 30 (1957 “The Deerslayer”), p. 70 (1936 “Last of the Mohicans”).
  154. Wood, Robin. Hollywood from Vietnam to Reagan. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986, pp. 278, 280, 293. [draws parallels between “The Deerslayer” and “The Deerhunter”]
  155. Wood, Ruth Kedzie. “Leatherstocking Trail,” The Bookman, XLI, 5 (July, 1915), pp. 513-521. [pictures of “The Ark” and of “Tom Hutter’s Castle” constructed on Otsego Lake by a cinematograph company for the presentation of “The Deerslayer.”]
  156. Woods, Frank, “A Mohawk’s Way,” “Reviews of Licensed Films,” New York Dramatic Mirror, Vol. LXIV, No. 1657 (September 21, 1910), p. 31.