Cooper on Stage

Edward Harris (Central Missouri State University)

Originally issued on disk as James Fenimore Cooper Society Miscellaneous Papers, Electronic Series No. 1.

[May be reproduced for instructional use by individuals or institutions; commercial use prohibited.]


This article is divided into four sections. The original paper covered an overview of the plays, music, burlettas, operas, and ballets adapted from James Fenimore Cooper’s books in America and in Europe; Cooper’s interest in the theater; and his attempts to write for the theater. Section two is a brief history of the adaptations by book. A more detailed listing of reported performances by date with cast lists, comments, and reviews comprise section three. The last section is a selected bibliography.

The author is indebted to: Dr. Thomas Gladsky who asked if the book I was writing had any plays based on Cooper’s books and to John Small, Electronic Resources Librarian, Central Missouri State University, for his helping to create the society’s original web page and the conversion of this paper to HTML. The author wishes to thank the Central Missouri State University library staff and especially the cataloging staff for helping him use OCLC; the Self Instruction Center Staff for computer help; Pat Downing and Lori Fitterling of the Interlibrary Loan Staff; and Terry McNeeley, Instructional Design, for helping to design the disc label and the website.

The Author welcomes comments, corrections and updates. He may be contacted by email at Edward Harris

Cooper on Stage

Stage Performances

In a young country voraciously looking for native dramatic material, it was inevitable that James Fenimore Cooper’s books would be used as the basis for American drama. Cooper’s popularity was riding high in the decade 1820-1830. He produced 10 novels [nine of them on American subjects]. It did not take Cooper long to prove English critic Sidney Smith wrong: “In the four quarters of the globe, who reads an American book?” [Smith, pp. 79-80]. Beginning with The Spy, Cooper’s “American” books were widely published. Spiller and Blackburn provide long lists of American, British, European, and Asian editions. Despite many of the critics of the time, Cooper’s books were discovered and were widely read by the public. Military, patriotic, and period adventure (Indians and pirates) themes were often portrayed on the early stage. Cooper’s novels provided the dramatic action for all these themes. Consequently his books became a major influence on the theater both in America and in Europe. In 1834 James Rees said, “... suppose I dramatize Cooper’s Headsman for you (Hugh Reinagle) ... The popularity of the work will attract, though the piece may be d — d.” [Rees, p. 117] Indians and the frontier were very much a part of the American experience. Cooper wrote eleven Indian Tales. Between 1820-1840 thirty Indian plays were staged and twenty have been accounted for between 1840 and the Civil War. Over one-third of Cooper’s oeuvre were adapted for the stage. After the Civil War, new dramatic adaptations of Cooper’s novels were written in 1870, 1873 and 1874. [Jones, p. 109]

In America

The 1790 American copyright law for books enabled any American author who had published elsewhere to copyright their book regardless of when it was published. In England the first statute giving dramatists the exclusive right of performing their plays was passed in 1833. The United States granted stage-right in 1851 to dramatists who had their plays copyrighted here. The sole right to license the performance of a play was established by an act in America in 1856. Unfortunately the law required only the title to be registered; hence, often the same play was registered many times with a different title. Many stage productions in this era have been lost because of the lack of a published script and/or an official copyright record. Dramatists customary received the proceeds for the third night of production, but in the 1830’s many playwrights had an additional arrangement with the theater manager for a one time payment of money. [Grimsted, p. 146-147] Of course, once the play was sold the author had no property rights to the play regardless of how successful it became. Novelists, like Cooper, whose works were adapted received no compensation. “Earlier story-tellers were not moved to protest when they saw their fictions employed by the playwrights; in fact, they were often inclined to accept this as a compliment to their original invention.” [Matthews, 1916, p. 98] Some authors may have thought the dramatization was sound advertising for their novel.

In Europe

Except for a few adaptations, Cooper fared dramatically much better in Europe than at home in America: there were more offerings of his works on foreign stage and these adaptations had longer runs [ie: were more successful] than their American counterparts. British playwright Edward Fitzball “borrowed” Long Tom Coffin and made him into a British sailor with great success: a run of 200 nights. “The Indian chiefs of Fenimore Cooper lacked the popularity, on the boards, of his pirates and sailors who took naturally to the footlights.” [Disher, p. 241]

Several French plays were based on Cooper’s books. C. C. Etienne used Job Pray and Captain Polworth from Lionel Lincoln for the basis of his “Arwed, ou les Represailles [Arwed, or the Reprisals]” early in 1830 according to the Mercure de France au XIXe siècle in the Chronique Théâtrale. Anicet-Bourgeois wrote a five act drama, “La Vènitienne,” based on The Bravo in 1834 as noted in La Quotidienne, March 24, 1834. Le Constitutionnel [May 26, 1838] reported that Hippolyte Romand’s well received work, “Le Bourgeois de Gand,” used The Spy as its inspiration. Honoré de Balzac [November 16, 1843 letter] was reported to have considered writing a play based on The Spy with the character of Harvey Birch adapted to the great French actor Lemaître. Frédéric Lemaître is said to have talked Balzac out of it after seeing the failure of Helvéy’s “L’Espion (The Spy).” Conner reported that Balzac also considered a dramatic adaptation of The Red Rover. Alexandre Dumas wrote “Le Capitaine Paul” using Cooper’s character from The Pilot. A translation by William Berger in 1839 played in New Orleans as “Paul Jones.” Partridge [p. 177] stated that “The American novelist [Cooper in France] ... was popular in the theatres for about twelve years, but the sameness of his stories caused him soon to be exhausted as a ‘mine à exploiter.’”

According to Fritz Leuchs there were two dramatic versions of The Spy produced in German. The earliest was in 1829 when “Der Spion” played on the Dresden stage. This may have been the same “Der Spion oder George Washington” by E. Doench that played in New York on Washington’s birthday 1864. The second play, by Julius Dornau, was produced in Dresden in 1847. [Leuchs, p. 215]

Performing Arts


Several adaptations of Cooper’s books found their way to the stage of the opera house. The Spy was transformed into a three- act opera: “La Spia” by Luigi Arditi. Fillippo Manetta provided the libretto in both Italian and English. A second Italian opera “La Spia” was written by A. Villanis. “Le Pilote” by J. Urich is reported to have had one performance by Tower [Vol. 2, p. 1001]. The Bravo had several operas adapted from it: Marco Marliani’s opera in three acts, libretto by A. Berrettoni, and Saverio Mercadante’s “Il Bravo” with the libretto by Gaetano Rossi. Tower [p. 104] lists six French, German and Italian operas by this name. The novel/opera was adapted to the English stage by Thomas Cooke and entitled “The Red Mask.” It was viewed by Henry Crabb Robinson at the Drury Lane Theatre on December 3, 1834. Robinson reported that the scenery was “worth the money — the musick nothing.” [Brown, E., p. 145] “The Last of the Mohicans,” a lyric tragedy in three acts, was written by Carlo Zangarini with the score by Paul H. Allen. E. C. Phelps’ “Last of the Mohicans” may not have been performed. To celebrate the American Bicentennial, Alva Henderson was commissioned to write an opera. “The Last of the Mohicans” was performed in Wilmington, Delaware in June 1976.


There have been reported at least two French adaptations of Cooper’s works for the ballet. According to Le National, July 10, 1837, “Les Mohicans” appeared as a ballet. Aldolphe Adam wrote the music and choreography was by Antonio Guerra. The two act ballet was produced at the Paris Opéra. Partridge [p. 177] reported that in 1847 Mercedes of Castille was used by Corali as a basis for the ballet “Ozaï” [L’Union, May 10, 1847]. Beaumont [p. 148], reported that Jean Coralli was the author of “Ozaï” in 1847; but Beaumont indicated that the ballet was based on “the voyages of the celebrated French explorer, M. de Bougainville (1729-1814).” Reading the scene by scene outline of the ballet would indicate that Beaumont was correct. Cooper’s Wept of the Wish Ton Wish was also adapted as a ballet. [Rourke, p. 114]


At least four songs survive that were used in stage productions inspired by Cooper’s novels. Fitz-Greene Halleck wrote a song for the popular play “The Spy.” Another song is alluded to in The New York Evening Post (March 5, 1822) article (by William Coleman) which indicates that although they did not know the “youthful dramatist” ... “it is enough for us that our friend Croaker has thought it not beneath him to volunteer a song, in aid of the piece, and as a mark of friendship for the author (Charles P. Clinch).” [Croaker was Dr. Joseph Rodman Drake who with Halleck (Croaker Junior) wrote for the Evening Post; Halleck wrote the poem for Clinch] Thomas Dibdin wrote one for his adaptation of The Pilot. George Herbert Rodwell wrote “My Brigantine, The Words from the Water Witch.” Louis V. Saar got a copyright in 1901 for “My Brigantine” for mixed chorus and gave credit for the words to Cooper. M. H. Parnell composed the music to the words of the song “All Hands Unmoor!” which the Red Rover sings in Chapter 23 of Cooper’s book. The English burlettas also featured various songs specifically written for their productions. Many of these are lost to us at this time.

The Orchestra

Opus 21, the well known “Le Corsair,” by Hector Berlioz was originally entitled “La Tour de Nice [The Tower of Nice].” He worked on the overture at that ruin in 1831 and in 1844, but he was not satisfied with its first performance on January 19, 1845. Berlioz (London 1851-1852) revised and renamed the work “Le Corsair Rouge” [the title of The Red Rover in French] memorializing Cooper who had died on September 14, 1851. Eventually Berlioz dropped “Rouge” from the title.

Cooper and the Theatre

Cooper’s interest in the theater is reported at an early age. Cooper’s second daughter, Susan Fenimore Cooper, in her introduction to The Pioneers, remembers her father delighting to recall his performances in Cory’s amateur theatricals. At Cooperstown young Cooper was a student of Master Cory at the Academy where “The future author of “The Pioneers,” then a child some eight years old, was much commended on one of these occasions for his moving recitation of the “Beggar’s Petition,” in the character of an old man, wrapped in a faded cloak, and bending over his staff.”

Noah Miller Ludlow was traveling with Samuel Drake who was taking a theater company from Albany, NY to Frankfort, KY. In his first performance at Cooperstown, Ludlow forgot all of his lines. He reported that Cooper “did us the honor to attend” that performance of “The Prize” in 1815, and “encourage our pioneer efforts in the cause of the Drama.” [Ludlow, pp. 9-10]

From April 10-14, 1823 Cooper accompanied the “celebrated comedian” Charles Mathews from England on The Chancellor Livingstone (a steamboat) up the Hudson River to Albany, NY so “that he might see something more of America and American Manners than are to be found in a seaport town.” [Dunlap, History, Vol. II, pp. 329-330] Mathews so loathed the US that he “actually came to rehearsal with his nose stopped with cotton, to prevent his smelling “the d — American mutton chops!” The idea of the trip was to convert him, but he was offended “by both the matter and manner” of the only meal. When evening came and he found out that all the men were going to sleep in one cabin his “feeling revolted and he protested against taking rest on such terms.” Cooper came to the rescue. He got permission to use the Captain’s cabin and ordered food and whiskey punch to last until morning. Mathews wrote to his wife: “most amply was I gratified.” “The Spy” which had been produced in March 1822 was the leading subject of discussion. [Phillips, pp. 320-322] Cooper developed a life long friendship with the dramatist William Dunlap who accompanied them. Their diary/journals/letters indicate that they often visited each other and talked for hours. Dunlap dedicated his book on the theater in 1832 to Cooper. [Dunlap, History]

It is interesting to note that William Dunlap’s last play “A Trip to Niagara; or, Travellers in America,” ran for 24 performances at the Bowery Theatre opening on November 28, 1828. The setting of the second act is on a steamboat going up the Hudson River. Mr. Wentworth, a stuffy Englishman who flaunts his arrogance, and his sister, Amelia who is already persuaded of the quality and beauty of America, are aboard. Dunlap had Leatherstocking enter in the third act and recount some adventures from The Pioneers. Leatherstocking is successful in changing Wentworth’s idea of America.

Cooper made his home in New York City from 1822 until 1826 when he and his family sailed for Europe. We can assume that he attended the theater. In 1828 Cooper commented in Notions of Americans (p. 149) that the American theaters were generally superior to those in England partly because they were “not yet sufficiently numerous (though that hour is near) ... ” Cooper may have viewed some of the plays based on his books. We have no proof in his known correspondence of his seeing any plays in the United States. His only known theatrical attendance while living in New York is reported by both Adkins and Wilson. Cooper attended the opening of Italian Opera in New York in 1825 and sat beside Fitz-Greene Halleck.

Cooper’s seven year stay in Europe was from the summer of 1826 to November 1833. We don’t presently know whether he saw any of the dramatic adaptations of his books in Europe. Cooper’s references to his attending the theater in Europe are sparse. From his knowledgeable comments about opera and the theater, we could surmise that he attended both. Cooper’s discourse on the American stage in Notions of Americans (1828) would indicate that he was familiar with the dramatic milieu of his time. [Cooper, Vol. II, pp. 112-114] In a letter to Dr. James E. DeKay, Cooper reported attending a performance at Covent Garden with Samuel Rogers [they sat in a box with Sir John Leach, the vice chancellor]. An interesting observation Cooper made was that ” ... the lower tier was reserved for people in evening dress, and that the men sat with their hats off,” (men wore them in American theaters; ladies often tied theirs to the columns by ribbons) this gave “the spectacle an appearance of respectability and comfort ... that is now seldom seen in any of our own places of public resort.” [Cooper, England, pp. 266-267] In Letter III to his nephew R(ichard) Cooper, he tells of his visit to old Drury and Covent Garden. Cooper and Mr. Lynch attended the opera in London to hear Madame Pasta, and Cooper compared her to Madame Malibran who was singing in New York. [Cooper, France, pp. 38-39]

During his four and one half years in France, Cooper saw some of the notable personages of the stage and compared them to American and English performers. He concluded ” ... that a Frenchman is a great actor all the while, and that when he goes on stage, he has much less to do, to be perfect, than an Englishman ... or an American ... ” Cooper had seen Mademoiselle Mars and stated, “I have never beheld her equal.” [She was the actress who played Frances Wharton in Ancelot’s adaptation of The Spy. Cooper did not see her in “L’Espion” as he was not in Paris the latter half of 1828 nor the first two months of 1829 when the play was performed]. He commented on the morals of many of the pieces performed in Paris. [Cooper, France, pp. 181-185] Cooper felt that it was an immense advantage in having a National Theatre. He declared, “Our moralists have made a capital blunder in setting their faces against the stage ... ” “It should be patronized and regulated by the state, as the best means of ... checking, if not totally repressing its abuses.” “The common argument, that theatres are places of resort for the vicious, and particularly for women of light manners, is built on narrow views and great ignorance of the world.” [Cooper, England, p. 267]

Cooper wrote a letter dated 20 December 1828 from Florence, Italy to Mrs. Peter Augustus Jay, in which he said, “I have found a London acquaintance, here, who gives private theatricals, and we have been there ... ” [Walker] While in Florence, Lord Normanby invited the Coopers to his private theatricals in 1829 [Beard, Vol. 1, p. 346] There were ... “two English theatres, with amateur-performers; at the head of one of which is Lord B(urghersh), and at the head of the other Lord N(ormanby). At the latter only, however, can one be said to see the legitimate drama; the other running rather into music ...” according to Cooper. “We have seen Shakspeare in the hands of these noble actors once or twice, and found the representation neither quite good enough to please, nor yet bad enough to laugh at.” Cooper found the American verses to a comic song about different nationalities ... “an exaggerated and coarse caricature, positively suited only to the tastes of a gallery in a sea-port town.” [Cooper, Italy, pp. 24-26]

Cooper and Adapters

As far as we know, Cooper did not act as a consultant to any stage productions as some modern writers do, nor did he aid any playwrights as Sir Walter Scott aided Dan Terry in adapting Scott’s novels for the stage. We do not know if Cooper wrote any of the scripts for the stage productions of his books. William Dunlap writes in his diary that the playwright Charles Powell Clinch [“The Spy”] “tells me that J. F. Cooper dramatized his Pioneers & that it did not succeed.” (Sunday, April 28, 1833 entry). This may have been “The Pioneers” which played at the Park Theatre April 21, 22, 23, 1823, and it may have been the revised production entitled “The Wigwam; or, Templeton Manor” which played at the Park Theatre July 3, 7 and December 11, 30, 1830. Sherman [p. 432] indicated that “The Pioneers” was written by Cooper and played in New York in 1823. Whether Cooper wrote the play(s) or not, they were poorly received and only had a few performances. He may have tried in 1823, 1830, before 1847, as well as in 1850 to write for the theater as a medium of expressing his creativity.

The Mystery of the Chanting Cherubs

George B. Wittmer recounts a fascinating story of discovery of a two-act play “Mingos and Soldiers at Ft. Henry” in the base of Horatio Greenough’s statue: “Chanting Cherubs.” Cooper resided in Florence, Italy from October 1828 to July 1829. Here he met Horatio Greenough an American sculptor. While they were visiting the Pitti Palace, Cooper pointed out a painting (La Madonna del Baldacchino) by Raphael. Cooper asked Greenough if the two little angelic figures singing in the foreground would be a good subject for sculpture. Greenough executed the group in marble, incised on the back of the plinth “Sculptured in Florence for James Fenimore Cooper, 1830,” and Cooper purchased it. After a grand tour of America, “Chanting Cherubs” rested for many years in the parlor at Cooperstown according to Wittmer. Cooper had to sell the statue in 1847 to settle his debts with Henry Ogden.

In late June of 1980, Wittmer wrote that he went to a public auction of the Dobson family estate in Newton, KS. There he purchased the marble works given by Ogden to his daughter who married Elmo Dobson. They had staked out a claim near Newton just before Kansas statehood in 1858. Some minor damage at the lower right edge of the statue’s base had loosened the felt. Within was found a scrap of yellowed printer’s paper scrawled with these lines: “Tendered here as payment in full and in final [Cooper’s italics] dramatic mss Mingos and statuette Cherubs to Henry Ogden, N. Y./ J. Fenimore Cooper/March 15, 1847.” The twenty-one page play was also found secreted in the base. Ogden presumably had no use for the play, therefore it was never produced. One might hopefully wonder how many other plays by Cooper remain to be discovered? Wittmer’s article indicated that he gave the manuscript to the “Bolton Galleries” the geographical location of the gallery is not cited.

Additional details and information about the “Chanting Cherubs” are found in: Cooper’s letter to James Ellsworth DeKay, May 25, 1829 [Beard, Vol. 1, pp. 369-372]; Cooper’s correspondence with Greenough [Beard, Vol. I, p. 389, 394-395, 398, 402, 407, 413, 431-433]; biographies of Horatio Greenough; and Wright who indicated that the putti statue was sold to Mrs. Stevens (probably the wife of John C. Stevens)[Wright, 1963, p. 321]. Beard quotes a letter dated August 3, 1848 from Amariah Storrs to Cooper that a Mrs. Stephens bought the group. The statue was stored in NY for many years, and Cooper tried to interest several individuals in purchasing it. He also offered it to the House of Representatives. “Present ownership of the Cherubs, if it survived, is unknown.” [Beard, Vol. V, pp. 109-110]

Upside Down; or, Philosophy in Petticoats

Cooper’s only known play that was produced was his unsuccessful venture as a dramatic script writer in a comedy he called “The Law of Nature, or the Female Philosopher.” It was first produced under the name of “Upside Down; or, Philosophy in Petticoats” in New York at Burton’s Chambers Street Theatre June 18, 1850. Cooper received $250 from William E. Burton for his script. The play “was never published and the manuscript has not been discovered.” [Spiller and Blackburn, p. 209] Cooper had sent the manuscript to James Henry Hackett, “the American Falstaff,” hoping that he would play the major role of Richard Lovel. John Atlee Kouwenhoven has written about the discovery of this play in the Autumn, 1938 issue of The Colophon: A Quarterly for Booklovers. Cooper was in Cooperstown June 11 September 12, 1850 and could not have attended his play. It is interesting that Cooper left New York City (June 11) a week before his play was produced. He also reported in a letter to James H. Hackett dated June 30, 1850 that he was unable to attend a rehearsal. [Beard, Vol. VI, p. 198] Cooper probably had disassociated himself publicly from the play because of his “negative image” as promoted by the press.

Hackett reported the opening night: “The first act told exceedingly well — the second began pretty well but grew heavy towards the close, & the third act dragged very heavily ... ” [Cooper, Correspondence, II, p. 682-683] In a letter to Hackett after the play bombed, Cooper offered to repurchase the play from Burton. [Beard, Vol. VI, p. 198] The reviews of the play were not kind. The play only ran three nights [June 18, 20-21, 1850]. Reviewers found the play talky, too polemical, and the characters lacking motivation. The Albion did say that the dialogue was “... at all times smart, neat, and occasionally pointedly telling,” but thought “The characters, too, are all the time talking, without incident, motives or action ... ” “The comedy is in three acts; the plot, however, is so meager that it might well have been condensed in one, for the last two are but duplications of the first.” ” ... he (the novelist) may indulge in repetitions and re-productions — but all this is not tolerated by theatrical audiences.” [Albion, June 22, 1850] The Express wrote that “It showed up socialism beautifully” and that ” ... its only fault is being upon the whole a little too conventional or closetty ... ” and the critic found the scene in which Burton (Lovel) was “wooded by the she-Socialist ... screamingly delectable.” [Express, June 22, 1850] The Literary World reported that “The piece moves off extremely slow, the characters not appearing much interested in what they have to do, but preferring to ‘express their sentiments’ on the topics of the day.” “The plot has no probability ... ” “It is not dramatic ... ” “It might rather be called a lecture ... thrown into a dramatic form ... than a comedy.” Cooper’s play was an attempt ... “to ridicule the follies of the time.” The critic thought that Lovel, the gouty old bachelor, was a projection of Cooper himself: “the only wonder is, how he should have been able to have presented such another caricature of himself, ... without seeming to be aware that he was doing so.” The review, lists the cast, outlines the plot, and gives an accolade to Burton for his role of Richard Lovel. The June 29, 1850 Literary World ends on a positive Note: “But he has never succeeded in his pictures of society ... He is at home only in the forest, or on the ocean, or prairie, where we have all been so often delighted to accompany him.” Both The Albion (June 22, 1850) and William E. Burton, in a letter dated June 5, 1850 [Cooper, Correspondence, pp. 681 682], expressed the hope that Cooper would write again for the stage. Plays adapted from his novels by other dramatists were to fare better on the stage than Cooper’s attempt at writing for the boards. Boynton [p. 382] states, “The incident matters only as showing that to the end of his life Cooper still had the impulse to try new things.”

Most of Cooper’s books written from 1823 to 1833 became the basis for stage productions both here and in Europe. Ten of Cooper’s first 14 novels were adapted for the stage. No mention of Precaution nor of The Prairie being dramatized was found. Although Waples wrote that The Prairie received spectacular dramatization [Waples, p. 64], her citations would indicate that she meant The Red Rover. There is no present history of Notions of the Americans nor of The Heidenmauer taking the boards. Following the adaptation of The Headsman (1834) there was a long hiatus before The Deerslayer (1841) and Wing-and-Wing (1842) were given a brief life on stage.



Cooper holds the distinction of writing the first American novel to be dramatized. It was an adaptation of Cooper’s second book which was published on December 22, 1821. The play was produced ten weeks later on March 1, 1822 in New York City at the New Park Theater. “The Spy” was written by Charles Powell Clinch with twenty two scenes and follows the novel fairly closely . Clinch contributed three original scenes, hence most of the play is Cooper’s work. The play was also presented in Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington. Fitz-Greene Halleck wrote a song “The Harp of Love” which Miss Johnson sang in the role of Frances Wharton. “The Spy” remained a popular play over the decades and was still being presented in 1858. A new adaptation for the centennial by C. W. Barry was presented for the 1875-1876 New York theater season and ran for three weeks. Odell and Fishman both provide lists of the many performances and of the casts when available. Enoch Crosby gained some notoriety by claiming to be Cooper’s model for Harvey Birch. Crosby was able to command a box seat at some performances based on his claim. Cooper indicated in a letter that the first time he heard of Crosby was when he returned from Europe. [Cooper, Correspondence, Vol II, p. 684]

Auguste-Jean-Baptiste Defauconpret’s first translation of Cooper’s books was The Spy in 1822 and began Cooper’s popularity in France [McBride]. Jacques Ancelot adapted The Spy [L’Espion] for the French stage in December, 1828, and it played at the Salle Richelieu of the Theatre Français. The play was originally scheduled to be produced at the less prestigious Theatre de l’Odéon, but Ancelot chose to change theaters. The director of the l’Odéon, Lemetheyer, commissioned Léon Halévy, Louis Marie Fontan, and Gustave Drouineau to adapt a play. The play was rehearsed and staged within two weeks and Halévy’s “L’Espion” was presented at the l’Odéon on December 6, 1828 a week before Ancelot’s adaptation. Halévy’s play had twenty characters and reflected the short time taken in writing. The reviews were generally poor although the play was presented thirteen times between its December 6ᵗʰ opening and February 14, 1829. In contrast Ancelot and his collaborator E. J. E. Mazéres opened at the Theatre Français on December 13, 1828. The play was attended by the Duchess of Berry and the princes of the House of Orleans. It was a gala event that was well received by the public and by the reviewers. The play followed Defauconpret’s translation of Cooper’s novel fairly closely with some scenes played word for word. Mademoiselle Mars, the most celebrated actress of the time, played Frances Wharton. She appeared in 39 of the 44 scenes in this five-act play. Although out of proportion to Wharton’s role in the novel, Mlle. Mars’ appearance helped insure the success of the play. It was presented seventeen times between its opening on December 13ᵗʰ and February 1, 1829.


The play was enthusiastically awaited according to the article in the Albion. “The Pioneers” opened at the Park Theatre, April 21, 1823. Odell provides a list of the full cast, but “Despite the good cast, The Pioneers failed to achieve the success of The Spy; it reached only the third performance — the traditional author’s night.” [Odell, Vol. III, p. 63] Cooper was in West Point from April 19-24, 1823, therefore we can assume that he did not see “The Pioneers” at the Park Theatre, April 21-23. Ireland noted that “The Pioneers” played with Maywood as Natty and lists the cast. [Ireland, I, p. 414]

William Dunlap’s diary states that C. P. Clinch, who adapted The Spy, told him that Cooper had dramatized The Pioneers. [Dunlap, April 28, 1833 entry] This reference could be to “The Pioneers” which had the three night run in 1823.

A revised version of the play called “The Wigwam, or Templeton Manor” was presented on July 3, 1830 at the Park Theatre. The new “Melodrama” was also produced on July 7ᵗʰ; it was revived on December 11, 1830 [Odell, full cast list, Vol. III, p. 492]; and repeated on December 30, 1830.

Odell lists the cast of a May 19, 1849 production at William E. Burton’s Chambers Street Theatre (formerly Ferdinand Palmo’s New York Opera House, 39 & 41 Chambers St.), and this is the last we hear of “The Pioneers.” [Odell, Vol. V, p. 443]


The dramatization of this novel gave Cooper another first: the successful adaptation of a pirate novel to the stage [others followed: “The Water Witch” and “The Red Rover”. Paralleling the success of Cooper’s first sea novel was the great triumph of the dramatization of The Pilot. Fishman reported that Edward Fitzball wrote an adaption of The Pilot that was performed at the Park Theatre on October 29, 1824. Fitzball also wrote a burlesque version that takes place off the American coast with British sailors and which makes the ridiculous characters Yankees. This version had great success in England. Sir Walter Scott recorded his viewing the play and the support it got from British sailors. [Lockhart, Vol. 5, p. 10]

“Paul Jones, or, a Storm at Sea” was written by W. H[enry] Wallack. It was first played March 21, 1827 at the Chatham Theatre. [Cooper was in Europe] Mrs. Wallack played Kate Plowden, and it is said that James M. Scott’s Long Tom Coffin became a stage tradition with the name clinging to him. The 17ᵗʰ performance was on the 10ᵗʰ of April.

Theater based on The Pilot was very successful over a 45-year span as evidenced by Odell’s reporting a first performance in 1824 and the last reported performance in 1869 in the United States. A comic opera entitled “Paul Jones” played in 1889 [Nicoll, V, pp. 363, 791]. Brown also reported a comic opera by H. B. Farnie by the name of “Paul Jones” that played October 6, 1890 at the Broadway Theatre; February 20, 1892 at the Union Square Theatre; February 20, 1892 at the Harlem Opera House; and January 31, 1898 at the American Theatre. The only connection may have been the name.


Cooper’s fifth novel, Lionel Lincoln, or, The Leaguer of Boston was not a success. Thomas R. Lounsbury called it one of Cooper’s worse failures [Lounsbury, p. 51], and Henry W. Boynton said, “The trouble with Lionel Lincoln is not that it is based on fact but that it fails to transmute fact.” [Boynton, p. 126-130] Cooper may have had a similar evaluation because he did not attempt to write any of the other twelve novels in his planned series for the original thirteen states. Nevertheless, as adapted for the stage by Steven E. Glover we can see that it was performed for a period of 25 years from 1832 to 1857. The play incorporated much of the dialogue from the novel. “The Cradle of Liberty” was a popular Fourth of July offering with its exceptional description of the battle of Bunker Hill.


The Last of the Mohicans, published in February, 1826, was a great success as a book. Lounsbury states, “Of all the novels written by Cooper, “The Last of the Mohicans” is the one in which the interest not only never halts, but never sinks,” [Lounsbury, p. 52-53]. One wonders why then with such wide acceptance it took until December 27, 1831 to produce a play from the novel. Captain Steven E. Glover adapted the book for the stage, and the play was presented at the Richmond Hill Theatre in NYC. The developments of the characterizations, dialogue and the plot were close to the novel. Hoole says that the play was presented in Charleston January 6, 1830; and Fishman states that it played in New Orleans at the American Theatre intermittently from April 1830 to March 1831. [Fishman, p. 88] The play did not catch on and was last seen in London at the Pavilion on March 3, 1866 according to Fishman and in America at the Broadway Theatre on June 20, 1873. [Fishman, p. 88 89] Brander Matthews wrote, “The dramatizations of Scott, of Cooper, and of Dickens, ... were none of them good plays, nor were they ever wholly satisfactory to those who knew and loved the original novels.” Matthews suggests a reason for a play from an excellent book not catching on: “The more famous the novel — one might almost say the better the novel — the less likely is it to make a good play ... in the end the play becomes a mere series of magic-lantern slides to illustrate the book ... ” [Mathews, pp. 32-63]


The second of Cooper’s sea novels was equally popular to his first. Gordon tells us that at least seven adaptations (3 American; 4 British) appear to have been made with four available in print [Gordon, p. 66]. It only took six weeks after the book was at the printer to see an adaptation on the stage of The Red Rover. Francis C. Wemyss (manager of the Chestnut (Chesnut) Street Theatre, Philadelphia, PA) secured a copy from Carey and Lea (Cooper’s publishers) in advance and gave it to Chapman to dramatize. The play was written by Samuel Henry Chapman who was offered $20.00 a night for every night it played. It was first produced on February 21, 1828 and ran for four nights in February; four in March; and two in April at the Chestnut Street Theatre, Philadelphia, PA. The play followed closely the plot, the dialogue, and the characterizations of the book. Chapman added only two scenes of his own to the thirteen scene adaptation. The play was reported to have been a challenge for the author, painter and machinist. According to Wemyss all acquitted themselves well including the excellent music of Mr. Braun. “Never in any theatre, was a more successful piece produced; enabling us to act on the Tuesday and Thursday nights, to five hundred dollars per night ... ” [Wemyss, 1847, pp. 149-150; Wemyss, 1848, p. 129]

A second adaption was produced at the Park Theatre on May 1, 1828 and a third at the Lafayette Theatre in May, 1828.

The play was last seen at the Park Theatre on April 16, 1879: a fifty-one-year life span. James Rees wrote that F. C. Wemyss wrote “Red Rover” which played at Pittsburgh, PA [Rees, p. 138]. This could have been Chapman’s adaptation with which Wemyss had been closely associated.

Edward (Fitz)ball also adapted the book in a two-act nautical drama: “The Red Rover; or, the Mutiny of the Dolphin.” This played in Edinburgh at the Theatre Royal in April 1830 and had a long run at the Adelphi Theatre in London. Fitzball was successful in persuading the management to put his adaptation ahead of another adaptation that they had commissioned. His nautical burletta was produced at the Adelphi on February 9, 1829. Thomas Potter Cooke, a former British seaman, who had great success on the stage, played Fid. (Cooke also played Long Tom Coffin in Fitzball’s “The Pilot”)

Nicoll reports an anonymous adaptation was played at the Surrey Theatre in London on September 27, 1829. [Nicoll, II, p. 516] A Surrey playbill in the Widener Library lists T. P. Cooke again playing Fid. John Gordon speculates that this could have been Fitzball’s adaptation because of Cooke’s role. There was also an anonymous English adaptation presented at the Royal Cobough Theatre in 1829. [Nicoll, Vol. IV, p. 97]

The February 15ᵗʰ John Bull announcement that the “Red Rover” a play “originally written for the Adelphi Theatre but from certain circumstances never performed there” would indicate that this was the burletta that Fitzball succeeded in edging out. It was written by R. T. Weaver and performed at the Sadler’s Wells Theatre on March 2, 1829. The three act, eleven scene play follows the story and uses Cooper’s dialogue.

Attesting to the popularity of Cooper’s work, there was also a burlesque written years later by Francis Cowley Burnard [of “Box and Cox” and “Punch” fame] which played at the Strand Theatre December 26, 1877. [Clarence, p. 378]

The publication of Cooper’s book in England spawned a school of nautical sketches and stories between 1829-1831. Some writers feel that because of his peculiar origins and conflicting obligations, Frederick, the hero of Gilbert and Sullivan’s “The Pirates of Penzance,” is the replica of Cooper’s Wilder.


The dramatization of this novel gave Cooper another first: the successful dramatization of an Indian theme. The Wept of the Wish-Ton Wish was published in September, 1829 and depicts the manners and customs of New England Puritans. The capture by Indians of the Heathcote’s daughter (Ruth), being an Indian (Chief Conanchet’s) wife (Narramatah) and a mother, and her return to her family are the elements of drama. The first adaptation of the novel written for the stage premièred on December 1, 1834. The last reported adaptation was a two act dramatization in 1851. [Moody, p. 104] A burletta by English playwright W. B. Bernard played at the St. Charles in New Orleans in 1835-36. The plays ran intermittently over a duration of decades: November 12, 1830 to November 30, 1878. Mlle. Celeste and later Marie Zoë played their favorite Narramattah character for many years.


Dunlap lists a “Taylor” (Charles Western Taylor?) as the author of “The Water Witch.” Whether it was the one in which Mrs. Hamblin gave over 100 performances we do not know. Richard Penn Smith also wrote an adaption of “The Water Witch” one of which played on Christmas Day, 1830. There were at least two other versions produced after Penn Smith’s attempt. [Quinn, p. 213] Josephine Fishman indicates that Smith’s adaption was presented at the Philadelphia, PA Chestnut Theatre Christmas week 1831, and January 1832. [Fishman, p. 90] She also lists a performance of a version by Henry James Finn at the American Theatre, New Orleans on January 19, 20, 21, and November 20-22, 1839. Clapp [p. 295] noted that Finn’s “Water Witch” “had a good run” at the Tremont Theatre in the 1831-32 season. J. S. Wallace is listed as the author of the play at the Arch Street Theatre Philadelphia on September 4, 6-9, 1841 and September 30, 1843, and C. W. Taylor is listed as the author of the play at the Bowery May 31, 1844 [Fishman, p. 91]. Performances are listed from 1830-1862. Davis said, “Of all the picaresque heroes the most popular was Tom Tiller, ‘The Skimmer of the Seas’... This stage piece of 1830 was performed more often than any other play of the period.” [Davis, p. 14]


Odell reported “The Bravo, or, The Black Gondola” played at the American Theatre in the Bowery June, 1833. Richard Penn Smith wrote two adaptations. One was called, “The Bravo, or, The Red Mask” which played in Philadelphia in 1849, and an adaptation in blank verse called “The Venetian” which was produced in New York in 1845 and in Philadelphia at the Arch Street Theatre in 1849. Quinn also indicated Penn Smith wrote a blank verse dramatization as a five-act tragedy in 1836 that was produced as “The Venetian” at the Arch Street Theatre in 1849. According to Fishman, Richard Penn Smith wrote “The Bravo, or, The Red Mask” which played at the Walnut Street Theatre, Philadelphia, PA on October 2, 4, 6, 1849. [Fishman, p. 102] A. H. Wilson reported that W(illiam) T(homas) Moncrieff wrote a play entitled “The Bravo of Venice.” [Wilson, pp. 555, 721] Last performance is reported on March, 1860 at the New Bowery Theatre.


James Rees wrote an adaptation in 1834 for Hugh Reinagle, the scene designer who also helped write the prologue, that played at the American Theatre in New Orleans on May 17, 1834. Mr. Scott, who played Long Tom Coffin so often, played the Headsman. Odell reported an adaptation called “Mount St. Bernard or The Headsman” which played at the American Theater in New York in March of 1834 and again in April, 1849. It would seem that this play had a short life.


There were only two references found to the dramatization of The Pathfinder. Jonas B. Phillips wrote the adaptation, and it reportedly played at the Bowery Theatre, NY in 1840.


Odell reported a play by this name at the Bowery Theater in September of 1841. He indicates that this was a revival. When was the original? Spiller and Blackburn report this performance at the Bowery Theatre, NY on September 23, 1841. Quinn lists “The Deerslayer” by an unknown author at the Bowery on the same date. Robert St. Clair wrote a 3 act play called “Deerslayer” in 1937.


There is only one report of a play by the title of “Wing-and-Wing.” It played sometime between December 16-26, 1842 at the Chatham Theatre as one of three or four plays presented in an evening.

Many of the minor theaters did not advertise in the major papers of the day, but rather depended on posted notices and/or on the distribution of handbills. This practice makes it difficult to assure that some performances were not missed. The actors moved from one theater to another with ease. The producers of the plays often changed the spelling and/or the names of the characters. Managers attempted to offer a variety in their theater’s repertoire. This often resulted in their advertising subtitles of the play, sometimes changing part of the title, and/or creating an entirely new name for their play’s promotion.

Cost of a night at the theatre ran from 12½ cents to $.75 or $1.00 for a box seat depending on which theatre you attended, where you sat, and the state of the economy of the country. Performances often included several plays and scenes from favorite plays, orchestra music, recitations, vocal solos, ballets, pantomimes, minstrel shows, etc. to round out the night’s entertainment.  These multiple offerings were a great bargain for an evening’s entertainment compared to the theater in New York today — although undoubtedly not as comfortable for the patron. Patrons sat on benches or stood which could make a long evening. Odell reported that one big improvement to the seating was when a theater ad indicated that ladies no longer had to walk over the benches as the seats were now hinged and could be raised. Early patrons had to put up with dripping wax from the chandlers (the first gas lights were installed in the Chestnut Street Theatre in 1816); dirty benches and filthy floors; the free flow of liquor empowered the patrons to yell out to the orchestra demanding their favorite songs, hiss and boo those on stage, and throw things at the actors.  Segar smoking was finally limited during performances because many theaters perished in flames.

The history of the development of the theater in the United States is a fascinating story which has already been well documented. Cooper saw many changes in American theater. In 1841 the first box set was imported from England and used instead of the traditional backdrops and wings. P. T. Barnum, Tom Thumb, and the birth of the Minstrel Show also came in the early 1840’s. America’s first professional author, J. Fenimore Cooper, played a notable part in the history of the first half of eighteenth century theater creating narratives which were readily adapted to the boards.

Following are the occurrences of titles of plays by the same name as Cooper’s published works. As few of these scripts exist today, it is possible that on occasion the name of the play is the only thing in common with Cooper’s book.



  • The New York American, Announcement (March 1, 1822). [announces the first performance of C. P. Clinch’s “The Spy, or a Tale of Neutral Ground” at the Park Theatre with a Miss Holman in the role of Frances; Odell (Vol. 3, pp. 22-23) lists the cast sans a Miss Holman; New York Evening Post (March 1, 1822) credits the role to Miss Johnson]
  • The New York Evening Post, “Theatre,” (Friday, March 1, 1822). [announces the first night of “The Spy, or a Tale of the Neutral Ground” with Mr. Simpson as Maj. Dunwoodie; Cowell as Sitgreaves; Maywood as Harvey Birch, (the Spy); and Miss Johnson as Frances. Miss Johnson “will sing The Harp of Love, Written by a friend of the author. After which, the ballet of AULD ROBIN GRAY. The entertainments to conclude with the musical entertainment of ROSINA, Or, The Reapers. Performance to commence at quarter before 7 o’clock.”]
  • Hodge, Francis, p. 34. [Gen. George Pope Morris, editor of The New-York Mirror, and Ladies’ Literary Gazette was an enthusiastic advocate of American theater. “After the first performance of an adaptation of Fenimore Cooper’s The Spy, he lacerated the manager for producing it so poorly and for letting it be ‘literally murdered by the performers’.”]
  • New York Evening Post, “Theatre” (Saturday, March 2, 1822). [announcement of Monday’s performance]
  • ------, “Celebration of the adoption of the New Constitution,” (Monday, March 4, 1822). [“The Spy, which in the judgment of many whom we much respect, contains great merit, is to be repeated ... “]
  • ------, “Theatre” (Monday, March 4, 1822). [“In celebration of this commemorable day, the front of the Theatre will be brilliantly illuminated ... ” “This evening, will be presented, for the 2d time, the drama in 3 acts of THE SPY ... ” Same cast as 1ˢᵗ night. Miss Johnson will sing The Harp of Love ... “To which will be added, (for the 1ˢᵗ time) the interlude of OH! YES, or THE CONSTITUTION ... ” “The entertainment to conclude with the melodrama of TIMOUR THE TARTAR”]
  • ------ (March 5, 1822). [“All of our editors unite in extolling the production of the juvenile author, as possessing uncommon merit; and, although it will never be allowed to warp our judgment, knowingly, yet it is a circumstance, which will always have a very considerable weight with us, that it is a native plant, & of course one that is justly entitled to be watered and sunned with our own hands.” “The Harp of Love” words are printed; “Air - Bonnie Doon”]
  • ------, “Theatre” (Tuesday, March 5, 1822). [announcement of “The Spy” for Wednesday’s benefit]
  • ------, “Theatre” (Wednesday, March 6, 1822). [play presented for the 3ʳᵈ time as a benefit of the author; same cast; Miss Johnson will sing The Harp of Love]
  • ------, “Theatre” (March 7, 1822). [review of “The Spy” probably written by editor William Coleman; the play has “uncommon merit;” “The piece had every advantage of scenery, music, firing of small arms, and plenty of powder and smoke, enlivened with the blaze of a house a’fire, which was permitted quietly to blaze on, undisturbed by any body near it.”]
  • ------, “Theatre” (Tuesday, March 12, 1822). [“The Spy” presented with the same cast together with “Terese, The Orphan of Geneva”]
  • ------, “Theatre” (Thursday, April 4, 1822). [“In act 1, Miss Johnson will sing the favourite song of the Harp of Love. The words by a friend of the author, and the music by Mr. Willis of West Point.”]
  • ------, “Miss Johnson’s Benefit,” (Thursday, April 18, 1822). [“The entertainments provided for the evening, are of no common attraction. The Spy, with the merits of which, our dramatic readers are well acquainted, affords an opportunity for this young lady to exhibit talents of the first order;” the afterpiece was “Two Pages”]
  • ------, “Theatre” (Friday, April 19, 1822). [benefit of Miss Johnson]
  • ------, “Theatre” (May 1, 1822) and (May 15, 1822). [“The Spy” with Simpson]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. III (1821-1834). [“The Spy” by Charles P. Clinch, produced March 1, 1822 at the New Park Theater, list of the first cast, p. 22, 23; “The Spy” opened the 1822-23 season September 9ᵗʰ [despite the yellow fever epidemic of 1822 which had driven all who could go from NY city] with R. C. Maywood as Harvey Birch (one of his most frequent characters) p. 47; Miss Placide played Katy Haynes on November 1, 1823 at the Park Theatre, p. 95; R. C. Maywood played Harvey Birch on May 6, 1824, p. 107; a performance was given July 22, 1824 at the Broadway Circus, p. 116; Maywood appeared as Harvey Birch on June 1 at the Chatham Theatre, p. 209; Henry Wallack played Harvey Birch, James M. Scott Capt. Lawton, Walstein Maj. Dunwoodie, Palmer Fisher Col. Singleton, Peter Richings Henry Wharton, John Mills Brown Sitgreaves, Mrs. Wallack Frances, Mrs. Walstein Katy Haynes, and Mrs. Fisher Sarah on November 6, 1827 at the Lafayette Theatre, p. 345; R. C. Maywood played Harvey Birch supported by Moreland, W. Forrest, Edwards, Mrs. Turner, and Miss Twibill on December 10, 1827 at the remodelled Chatham Theatre, p. 355; Enoch Crosby the original from which the character of Harvey Birch was drawn” attended a production of “The Spy” on November 3, 1829 at the Park Regnant Theatre, p. 446]
  • Durham, Weldon B., p. 390. [Clinch’s “The Spy” played at the New Park Theatre 1821-1822 season; detailed description of the theater; seated 2500]
  • Ireland, Joseph N., Vol. I, p. 399. [lists cast of Clinch’s play with Maywood as Birch; “On the 1ˢᵗ of March, an excellent dramatic adaptation of Cooper’s novel of the “Spy” was produced, with great success.”]
  • Moody, Richard, pp. 144-145. [Clinch’s dramatization of “The Spy” on March 1, 1822; sequence of events the same as in the novel; quotes the last speech of the play: praise for Birch and Washington]
  • Pagel, Carol Anne Ryan. [Chapter 4 includes a comparison of the novel and of scenes from the Clinch’s “The Spy” through detailed analysis of plot, subplots, pace, themes, and characters]
  • Sherman, Robert L., p. 516. [“The Spy” by Charles P. Clinch was seen in New York in 1922 (probably a typo: 1822) with Robert Maywood in a leading role; Sherman also reported “The Spy on Neutral Ground,” by a New York Gentleman, played in Philadelphia in 1821 with Word & Warren] James, Reese D., p. 357. [first performance of “The Spy” in Philadelphia at the Walnut Street Theatre on April 23, 1822 with receipts of $629.50; also played on April 26ᵗʰ and on December 26, 1822]
  • Brown, T. Allston, Vol. I, p. 25, 28. [“The Spy” produced at the Park Theatre on March 1, 1822; and at The Broadway Circus on September 9, 1822 by the Park Company; because of the yellow fever that summer the Park did not open at the usual time]
  • James, Reese D., p. 361. [“The Spy” played in Baltimore for the first time May 1, 1822 with receipts of $378.50; also played on May 17ᵗʰ]
  • Niles’ Weekly Register, XXII, 13 (Baltimore, May 25, 1822), p. 193. [“The Spy has been dramatized, and performed with complete success at many of our principal theatres.”]
  • Albion (Friday, November 15, 1822). [advertisement for “The Spy” to be performed on November 22, 1822]
  • James, Reese D., p. 681. [first performance of “The Spy” in Washington, D.C. was on July 4, 1823 with receipts of $96.25; also played on July 15ᵗʰ]
  • James, Reese D., p. 403. [H. Wallack played Harvey Birch in “The Spy” at Baltimore on November 5, 1823]
  • Hoole, William Stanley, pp. 88, 89, 90, 123. [“The Spy” was first produced at the Charleston Theatre December 8, 1823 and again on December 13ᵗʰ; played January 28, and December 29, 1824 and January 29, 1846]
  • The New York American, Announcement (June 1, 1826). [announces a performance of “The Spy” at the Chatham Theatre on June 1, 1826]
  • Smither, Nelle, p. 366. [Clinch’s play was produced May 15, 1829 at the American Theatre, New Orleans with James H. Caldwell as Harvey Birch, Henry Warton as Pearson, Frances Warton as Mrs Rowe]
  • James, Reese D., p. 539, 671. [“The Spy” played at the Walnut Street Theatre in Philadelphia on January 8, 1833]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. IV (1834-1843), p. 241. [“The Spy” was produced at the Franklin Theatre, December 25, 1837]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. V (1843-1850), p. 94. [“The Spy” served as an afterpiece December 9, 1844 at The Park Theatre with Harrison playing Captain Lawton]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. VI (1850-1857), p. 232. [“The Spy” began a four-night run December 6, 1852 at the National Theatre with W. G. Jones as Harvey Birch]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. VII (1857-1865), p. 45. [“Harvey Birch” was played at the Bowery Theatre sometime between June 8 and June 13, 1858]
  • Leuchs, Fritz A. H., p. 98. [“Der Spion oder George Washington (The Spy of GW)” a five act play by E. Doench presented in German on Washington’s birthday 1864 at the Altes Stadttheater, New York; this may have been “Der Spion” which was played on the Dresden stage in 1829]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. IX (1870-1875), pp. 565-566. [Dominick Murray played Harvey Birch for three weeks in C. W. Barry’s adaptation of “The Spy” at the Wood’s Museum beginning July 26, 1875. Barry played George Washington. Entire cast list on p. 566]
  • Brown, T. Allston, Vol. II, pp. 539-540. [“Dominick Murray appeared August 26, 1875 in “The Spy” with the author, C. W. Barry, M. V. Lingham, Gussie de Forest, J. H. Burnett, and J. W. Shannon. “The Spy” was continued for the evenings, and for the daily matinées except Wednesday and Saturday ... “The Spy” continued for a third week ... “]


  • Albion, “Mr. Maywood-The Pioneers,” Vol. 1, 44 (Saturday, April 19, 1823), p. 351. [Notice of the dramatization of “The Pioneers” to be produced on Monday night. Expressed the hope that Mr. Maywood’s health would enable him to play Natty Bumpo, and expressed the opinion that “It is a fortunate circumstance for the Author of the Spy, that in the two dramas to which his novels have given rise,. ... that an actor of Mr. Maywood’s research and most diligent inquiry after the perfection of art ... should be at hand to play the most import parts” (Robert Maywood played Harvey Birch in “The Spy”)]
  • Davis, Blanche Elizabeth, p. 245. [“The Pioneers; or, The Sources of the Susquehannah,” by an anonymous author played in New York City on April 21, 1823]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. III (1821-1834). “The Pioneers” opened at the Park Theatre, April 21, 1823 [a list of the full cast], p. 63-64. [“Despite the good cast, The Pioneers failed to achieve the success of The Spy; it reached only the third performance — the traditional author’s night”]
  • Dunlap, William. [C. P. Clinch “tells me that J. F. Cooper dramatized his Pioneers & that it did not succeed.” Sunday, April 28, 1833 entry]
  • Sherman, Robert L., p. 432. [“The Pioneers” by J. Fenimore Cooper played in NY with Robert Maywood in a leading role in 1823]
  • Quinn, Arthur Hobson, p. 475. [Anonymous. “The Pioneers,” played at the Park Theatre, NY on October 29, 1824]
  • Ireland, Joseph N., Vol. I, p. 414. [April 21, 1823 cast listed with Maywood as Natty; “The dramatizer had his benefit on the 23d.”]

“The Wigwam”

  • Nicoll, Allardyce, Vol. IV, pp 305. [“The Wigwam; or, The Men of the Wilderness” was licensed by the Lord Chamberlain March 31, 1830]
  • Disher, Maurice Willson, pp. 240-241. [Thomas John Dibdin wrote “The Wigwam; or, The Red Men of the Wilderness,” which played at The Theatre Royal, Covent Garden, on Monday, April 12ᵗʰ, 1830]
  • Literary Gazette and Journal of Belles Lettres, Arts, Sciences, Etc., Review, 691 (Saturday April 17, 1830), p. 260. [“The Wigwam,” at Covent Garden, is an adaptation from Cooper’s novel of the “Pioneers,” and will probably do better when the holydays are over, as it is well got up and well acted, though not of the character looked for on Easter Monday.”]
  • The New Monthly Magazine and Literary Journal, Review, n. s., “The Drama,” XXX (May 1, 1830), p. 196,198. [Covent Garden Theatre: “The Easter-piece at this house under the title of “The Wigwam, or the Men of the Wilderness,” is taken from Cooper’s novel of “The Pioneers,” ... the mere naked story, apart from the mighty pictures for which it serves as a framework, is hardly worth transferring.” The book was unsurpassed ” ... for rude energy of style, and breadth and vividness of description ... ” ” ... but we have seldom seen a piece taken from a novel which gave so little idea of the real merit of the original work, ... ” A listing of the cast, and a critique of the characters follows.] Ireland, Joseph N. [noted a July 3, 1830 performance, Vol. I, p. 632; and a 1846-1847 season production, Vol. II, p. 479]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. III (1821-1834). [“The Wigwam, or, Templeton Manor” (The Pioneers), a revised version with Woodhull as Judge Temple, Barry as Oliver, Placide as Richard Jones, Peter Richings as Mohegan, Thomas Hilson as Benjamin, and Mrs. Wallack as Elizabeth on July 3, 1830 at the Park Theatre, the new “Melodrama” was also produced on July 7ᵗʰ, p. 465; it was revived on December 11, 1830 [“For Cooper’s sake I append the cast:”] Woodhull as Judge Temple, Mr. Placide as Richard Jones, Barry as Oliver Edwards, Hilson as Penguillan, Mr. Blakeley as Natty Bumppo, Richlings as Mohegan, Foot as Maj. Effingham, Mr. T. Placide as Jonathan Riddle, Mrs. Wallack as Elizabeth, Mrs. Godey as Louise Grant, and Mrs. Wheatley as Remarkable, p. 492; and repeated on December 30, 1830, p. 494]
  • Fishman, Josephine. [lists casts of the April 21-23, 1823, July 3, 7 and December 11, 30, 1830 productions at the Park Theatre]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. V (1843-1850). [“The Wigwam” a new Indian burletta presented George Holland as Puffy Plumpton with John Nickerson and Miss Anna Cruise (wife of W. Cowell) at the Olympic Theatre, March 31, 1847, p. 294; a production at William E. Burton’s Chambers Street Theatre (formerly Ferdinand Palmo’s New York Opera House) lists the cast of a May 19, 1849 production, p. 443; may not have been based on Cooper’s work]


  • Quinn, Arthur Hobson, p. 475. [Anonymous. “The Pilot,” played at the Park Theatre, NY on October 29, 1824]
  • New-York Mirror, and Ladies’ Literary Gazette, “Theatre-Park, Monday, Nov. 1.” [Review of “The Pilot, ar(or) a Tale of the Sea,”] II, 15 (Saturday, November 6, 1824), pp. 118-119. [“Cooper’s novel of the Pilot has been read and admired throughout Europe and America — it is a work of more than common merit, but it was the last novel that should have been dramatized; ... in our opinion ... it, however, drew a full house, and went off in a manner highly creditable to the manager and performers.” The scenes painted by Mr. Roberts and Mr. Evers were excellent, but the last scene painted by Mr. Coyle “was decidedly the best;” Odell, George C. D., Vol. III (1821-1834). [“The Pilot” October 29, 1824 at the Park Theatre with John H. Clarke as The Pilot, J. F. Foot as Col. Howard, Jacob Woodhull as Borroughcliffe, Mr. D. Reed as Capt. Munson, Mr. Simpson as Edward Griffith, Thomas Hilson as Barnstable, Mr. Stanley as Capt. Manual, Mr. Placide as Boltrope, Mr. Kent as Thomas Coffin, Mrs. Bancker as Cecilia Howard, Mrs. Clarke as Alice Dunscombe, and Miss Johnson as Katherine Plowden, p. 141; Charles B. Parsons played Paul Jones, Mr. Scott as Long Tom Coffin, John Sefton as Sgt. Drill, Mrs. H. Wallack as Kate Plowden beginning September 26, 1828 for 3 nights at the Chatham Theatre, p. 416-17; in a second piece John Forester Foot played Paul Jones to Thomas Archer’s Tom Coffin July 20, 1829. This ran several days then Scott played Long Tom on July 29ᵗʰ, p. 421; James M. Scott appeared in his famous role of Long Tom Coffin on May 10, 12, 1831 at the Bowery Theatre, p. 524] Nicoll, Allardyce, Vol. IV, pp. 313. [“The Pilot; or, A Tale of the Sea” by Edward Fitzball (or Ball) was licensed by the Lord Chamberlain on October 25, 1825 as “The P.; or, A Storm at Sea;” produced on October 31, 1825 at the Adelphi Theatre; No. 347 Dicks’ Standard Plays] Baker, H. Barton, pp. 420-422. [“Its (the Adelphi) first great hit was the dramatic version of Fenimore Cooper’s famous novel, The Pilot.” Shifting the “odious and ridiculous parts assigned by the author to the British to the Yankees ... will go a great way to account for the extraordinary run - extraordinary for those days- of two hundred nights”]
  • Powell, Thomas, pp. 25-27. [” some English playwright when the novel first appeared, for he reversed the action, and making Tom Coffin an English Seaman and Boroughcliffe an American Volunteer, coolly transferred the scene of action to the shores of the New World.” “We well remember one night when Cooke as Long Tom, and Reeve as Boroughcliffe, were convulsing the audience, which some Americans gave vent to their indignation, and loudly protested against Reeve’s outrageous caracature; after a few involuntary ebullitions their patriotism cooled, and they endured the rest with praiseworthy and smiling composure.”]
  • Lockhart, John G., Vol. V, p. 10. [Scott “hurried away to see honest Dan Terry’s theatre, called the Adelphic” and the E. Fitzball’s “Pilot” on October 21, 1826. He notes that the English playwright has reversed the “odious and ridiculous parts assigned by the original author to the British” and assigned them to the Yankees. Americans were much displeased, and they attempted a row; but British seamen from Wapping crowded the theater each night to support “the honour of the British flag.”] The Theatrical Observer, No. 1218 (Tuesday, November 1, 1825). [“Adelphi. — A new Nautical Spectacle, called The Pilot, was produced here last night: it was well acted — The scenery is beautiful, and its success was complete — The house was crammed.”]
  • ------, No. 1239 (Friday, November 25, 1825). [“Adelphi. — ... The Pilot is now an established favorite, deservedly so, from some excellent situations, aided by very good scenery, and the superior acting of Messrs. Yates, Terry, and T. P. Cooke.”]
  • ------, No. 2164 (Monday, November 17, 1828). [“Adelphi. — The Pilot, which has been revived at this house, draws nightly crowed audiences. Mr. Mathews plays Mr. J. Reeve’s part, and introduces two songs, ‘The Hunters of Kentucky,’ and ‘Militia Muster Folk,’ ... Mr. T. P. Cooke has resumed his inimitable representation of Long Tom Coffin. The Pilot, formerly played by Mr. Terry, is now represented by Mr. Gallot.”]
  • The Drama; or, Theatrical Pocket Magazine, Review, “The Pilot,” signed: “A. T.,” Vol. 8, Vol I - New Series (1826), pp. 271-274. [a negative review of the London dramatization at Dan Terry’s theatre: Adelphi; ” ... written by Sir Tallboy Ball of Popesege memory, and a very middling piece of writing it is.”] The United States Literary Gazette, III, 7 (Boston, January 1, 1826), pp. 275 276. [review of a nautical melo-dramatic burlette “The Pilot” at the Adelphi Theatre: “The Morning Herald says, that the melo-dramatist has taken pretty considerably large liberties with the characters of the novelist; and has contrived to exalt old England and its navy at the expense of Brother Johnathan most unceremoniously. He has made all the Americans sneaking paltroons, with the phraseology of “Mr Jonathan W. Doubikins,” whilst the meanest Englishman of the piece is a thundering Yankee-despising hero; overflowing at every turn with gasconades about his own immaculate honour, and the unquestionable invincibility of the British navy.”] Nicoll, Allardyce, Vol. IV, pp. 265. [“The Pilot: A Tale of the Sea” by William Bayle Bernard was presented at the Coburg Theatre July 17, 1826] Literary Gazette and Journal of Belles Lettres, Arts, Sciences, Etc., Review, 508 (Saturday October 14, 1826), p. 653. [” ... Mr. Terry, as the sturdy honest pilot, Mr. Yates, as the more polished Lieutenant Barnstable, and Mr. J. Reeve, as the mongrel “yankee Riglar (rigger?),” were excellent ... and T. P. Cooke, as Long Tom was ... the perfection of a character.” “The Pilot” opened at the Adelphi Theatre]
  • Sherman, Robert L., p. 431. [“The Pilot” by Edward Fitzball played in NY in 1827 with John R. Scott in a leading role]
  • Brown, Eluned, p. 119. [September 12, 1827 production of W. B. Bernard’s “The Pilot” at Weymouth]
  • Ireland, Joseph N., Vol. I. [Mr. Scott was seen as Long Tom on March 21, 1827 at the Chatham Theatre with Maywood as Paul Jones, Herbert as Col. Howard, Alex Simpson as Sergt. Drill, and Mrs. Wallack as Kate Plowden. “The “Pilot” had a protracted (17 night) run.” p. 498. Mr. C. B. Parsons made his first appearance in New York as Paul Jones, in the well known drama of the “Pilot” on September 26, 1828. p. 614]
  • Brown, T. Allston, Vol. I. [J. M. Scott appeared as Long Tom Coffin at Chatham Garden and Theatre on March 21, 1828, p. 88 (Spiller & Blackburn indicate this was Edward Fitzball’s nautical burletta, p. 211); Charles Booth Parsons appeared as Paul Jones on September 26, 1828, p. 89]
  • James, Reese D., p. 561. [“The Pilot” played at the Walnut Street Theatre on July 4, 1833]
  • Wilson, Arthur H., p. 632. [“The Pilot, or a Tale of the Sea, or The Stars and Stripes Triumphant” by W. H. Wallack played in Philadelphia at the Walnut Street Theatre November 23, 26, 1836; January 25 and November 30, 1837; July 30, September 3, 8, 1838; April 13, May 16, June 14, 1839; March 27, April 27, 1840; January 8, June 16, 18, 1841; January 15, 20, March 14, 1842; June 22, 1843; and August 12, 13, 1845; at the Chestnut Street Theatre on May 7, 1839 and April 18, 1855, and at the Arch Street Theatre on June 1, 3, August 13, 1841; June 14, 15, July 1, 21, October 8, 1842; October 8, November 29, 1845; February 12, October 16, 1848; February 27, 1851] Odell, George C. D., Vol. IV (1834-1843). [Charles B. Parsons played J. M. Scott’s famous part of Long Tom Coffin [second act only] at the opening season of the Bowery Theatre on August 11, 1834, p. 25; J. M. Scott reenacted his famous role of Long Tom Coffin at the Bowery Theatre on June 27, 1842, p. 557; J. M. Scott played Long Tom Coffin at the Bowery Theatre on September 10, 1842, p. 624; “The Pilot” was revived with Mrs. Henry Hunt at the Bowery Theatre in January, 1843, p. 630]
  • Hodge, Francis, pp. 216, 279. [George Hill played Sergeant Drill in “The Pilot” by an unknown author at the Chatham Theatre September 25, 1843]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. V (1843-1850). [George H. Hill (“of whom the audience never seemed to tire”) played Sgt. Drill in the Pilot, September 25, 1843 at the renovated Chatham Theater, p. 30; Benedict de Bar appeared as Long Tom Coffin in “The Pilot” on May 8, 1844 at the Bowery Theatre (de Bar also played Conanchet in “The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish” that night), p. 25; part of the June 8, 1844 cast: John Sefton as Sergeant Drill, James M. Scott as Long Tom Coffin, and E. S. Conner as Lieutenant Barnstable, p. 38; “The Pilot” accompanied the 24 successive night’s run of “The Siege of Monterey” beginning September 27, 1847 at the Bowery Theater as one of the afterpieces, p. 346; On October 16, 1847, for the benefit of pantomimist W. A. Barnes at The Chatham Theatre, E. S. Conner played Long Tom Coffin, Barnes as Sgt. Drill, with Mrs. H. F. (Preston) Nichols as Kate Plowden, p. 358; on April 26, 1850 at The Bowery Theatre John R. Scott played Long Tom Coffin, p. 537]
  • Brown, T. Allston, Vol. I, p. 320. [J. R. Scott appeared as Long Tom Coffin October 6, 1854 at the Chatham Theatre]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. VII (1857-1865), p. 137. [G. C. Boniface played in “The Pilot” at the Bowery Theatre in November, 1858]
  • Tompkins, Eugene and Kilby, Quincy, p. 152. [Mr. and Mrs. Edward L. Davenport played in “The Pilot” on January 2, 1869]

“Paul Jones”

  • Nicoll, Allardyce, Vol. IV, pp. 305, 517. [London productions February 12, 1827 under the title of “Paul Jones:, or, The Solway Mariner” and February 19, 1827 with the title of “The Pirates Doom; or, The S. M.” No. 290 of Dicks’ Standard Plays; played at the Sadler’s Wells Theatre August 30, 1827]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. III (1821-1834). [“Paul Jones, or, A Storm at Sea” with Mr. Maywood as Paul, Mr. A. Simpson as Sgt. Drill, Mr. Scott as Long Tom Coffin, Mr. Stevenson as Barnstable, Mr. Herbert as Colonel Howard, Mr. Collingbourne as Borroughcliffe, Mrs. Wallace as Kate Plowden, Mrs. La Combe as Cecilia and Mrs. Petrie as the Irish Women: complete cast of March 21, 1827 production which ran 17 performances at the Chatham Theatre, p. 284; Henry Wallack played Long Tom Coffin, and Frederick Brown and Mrs. Wallack appeared as Paul Jones and Kate Plowden in a second piece [to Wallack in “Rob Roy”] June 25, 1827 at the Chatham, also on July 6, 1827 James M. Scott played his famous part of Long Tom Coffin and Frederick Brown played Paul Jones, p. 288; the play was revived on April 14, 1828 with Scott as Long Tom Coffin and Mrs. Wallack as Kate and was repeated on April 15 & 18ᵗʰ at the Lafayette Theatre [“Paul Jones, in fact, had its usual long run”], p. 350, 351; Edward N. Thayer appeared as Capt. Borroughcliffe in “Paul Jones” August 2, 3, 1828, p. 364; John Forrester Foot appeared as Paul Jones with Thomas Archer as Long Tom at the American Opera House, Chatham Street on July 20, 1829, p. 421] Quinn, Arthur Hobson, p. 474. [W. H. Wallack’s “Paul Jones; or, The Pilot of the German Ocean,” played at the Chatham Theatre, NY on March 21, 1827] Lyceum, “Dramatic Notes,” II (November, 1827), p. 247. [a version of “Paul Jones” adapted to the American stage “by a gentleman of Philadelphia” was thought to be attractive for its “scenic display,” but thought it had little merit as a literary production.”]
  • Davis, Blanche Elizabeth, p. 245. [Wallack’s “Paul Jones; or, The Pilot of the German Ocean” played for seventeen weeks at the Chatham Theatre in 1827.]
  • Durham, Weldon B., p. 301. [“Paul Jones,” a nautical melodrama, played at the Lafayette Theatre during the 1827-1828 season and “featured battles at sea between ships floating on the theatre’s water tank”] Hoole, William Stanley, p. 96. [“Paul Jones” played on April 27, 1829 at the Charleston Theatre] Nicoll, Allardyce, Vol. IV, pp. 519, 636. [“The Pilot; or, A Tale of the Thames” by an unknown author (may have been J. B. Buckstone) was licenced by the Lord Chamberlain November 25, 1830 and produced at the Adelphi Theatre December 6, 1830; appears to have been a burlesque directed at “The Pilot” which was playing at Covent Garden]
  • Ludlow, Noah M., p. 379. [St. Louis, 1831: John Gilbert performed in “Paul Jones”]
  • James, Reese D., pp. 507-508. [“Paul Jones” played at the Walnut Street Theatre January 13, 20, 1832]
  • Smither, Nelle, p. 357. [“Paul Jones, The Pilot of the German Ocean” a melodrama by W. H. Wallack played at the American Theatre January 29 (cast list p. 86-87), February 1, 3, 8, 12, 26, and March 10, 1831; December 25, 1832; April 16, May 24, 1833; March 7, May 6, December 25, 1834; May 6, December 19, 1835; February 11, March 28, November 30, 1836; April 30, 1837; March 25, 1838; November 15, 16, 22, December 6, 13, 1840; January 8, 16, 24, 30, February 14, March 28, December 5, 19, 1841; January 19, April 26, 1842. and at the St. Charles Theatre April 28, 1839; January 5, 1840.]
  • ------, p. 357. [“Paul Jones” by William Berger played at the St. Charles Theatre January 31, February 1, April 11, 1840]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. IV (1834-1843). [“Paul Jones” was revived with William Sefton as Long Tom Coffin and E. N. Thayer as Borroughcliffe at the Franklin Theatre on April 5, 1836, p. 99, Scott played Tom Coffin and Miss Flynn Cecilia at the Chatham Theatre on February 22, 1840, p. 384, J. Hudson Kirby played Long Tom Coffin at the Chatham Theatre on May 1, 1841, p. 488, 489]
  • Daily Missouri Republican, “Paul Jones,” Vol. XIX, No. 2281 (Saturday October 17, 1840). [“At the conclusion of the first act, A FULL RIGGED SHIP will appear — descend the whole length of the stage, tack and stand up again, presenting a correct picture of a ship in a storm, beating off a lee shore.” “Paul Jones, the Pilot of the German Ocean,” was presented by theatre managers Ludlow & Smith on October 17, 19, 20, 21, 1840. Mr. Conner played Long Tom, Ludlow: Capt. Boroughcliffe, Mr. Maynard: Lt. Barnsable, Mr. Sanders: Sgt. Drill, and Mrs. Maynard played Kate Plowden; the first act only closed the season in St. Louis Wednesday October 28, 1840]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. V (1843-1850), “Paul Jones” [The Pilot], p. 197. [Wyzeman Marshall played Paul, Benedict de Bar, Long Tom Coffin, and Mrs. J. B. Booth, Jr., Kate Plowden at the Chatham Theatre, December 22, 1845]; [Mr. and Mrs. Charles Howard played Long Tom Coffin and Kate Plowden in July, 1847], p. 287.
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. VI (1850-1857), p. 556. [“Paul Jones” with Miss De Courcy, Edward Eddy (who was the theater manager) and George Holland was produced August 27, 1857 at the Bowery Theatre]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. VII (1857-1865), p. 331, 332. [Edward Eddy play in “Paul Jones” at The New Bowery Theatre in early October, 1860. G. C. Boniface and Mrs. W. G. Jones played “Paul Jones” (one of 4 plays) on November 9, 1860 as a benefit for A. H. Davenport]
  • Brown, T. Allston, Vol. II, p. 202. [Edward Eddy played Long Tom Coffin February 14, 1863 at the New Bowery Theatre; lists cast; Eddy played Long Tom again on September 16, 1865, p. 213]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. VIII (1865-1870). [“Paul Jones” was presented at the Bowery Theatre on October 15, 1866, p. 171; September 14, 1867, p. 307; Edward Eddy opened a season at the Stadt-Theater with the play in the last half of June, 1868, p. 333; Edward Eddy played Long Tom Coffin at the Brooklyn Opera House, Williamsburgh on September 14, 1867, p. 400; and a matinee at the Bowery Theatre on July 4, 1870, p. 609]
  • Carson, William G. B., 1949, p. 286. [the melodrama “Paul Jones, the Pilot of the German Ocean” was offered on October 17, 18, 19, 20, 28, 1840 with Edmon (Edmund) S. Conner as Long Tom Coffin; Noah M. Ludlow, as Boroughcliffe; J. P. Maynard as Barnstable; Saunders (Sanders), as Sgt. Drill; and Mrs. Maynard as Kate Plowden, p. 109; “Paul Jones” also closed the fall season on November 2, 1844]
  • ------, 1965. [Noah M. Ludlow (theater manager) with John Gilbert as Long Tom Coffin played at the “Salt House” Theater (“Salt Box” Theatre in Court Street) in June, 1831, p. 129; Ludlow, Mr. Johnson, and Mr. and Mrs. Watson played in “Paul Jones, the Pilot of the Indian Ocean” on September 23, 1834, p. 140]
  • Grimsted, David, pp. 108, 254. [” ... the (play) lists for New Orleans and St. Louis give greater prominence to melodrama ... ;” Henry Wallack’s Paul Jones (1831 1851) played in New Orleans 71 times (the 9ᵗʰ most popular play); in Philadelphia 36 times; Charleston once; and St. Louis 9 times]
  • Kendall, John S., 1952. [“Paul Jones” closed the season at the St. Charles Theater on April 28, 1838, p. 156; a new “Paul Jones” arranged from Dumas’ drama by William Berger was brought out by Caldwell and given three nights at the St. Charles Theater in April, 1840, p. 171; E. S. Connor played in “Paul Jones” at the New American (also referred to as the St. Francis Street Theater) November, 1840, p. 193; James W. Wallack, Sr. played Long Tom Coffin and Miss Eliza Petrie was Kate in the last performance at the New American on April 28, 1844, p. 234]
  • Quinn, Arthur Hobson, p. 474. [“Paul Jones” arranged from Dumas’ drama by William Berger played at the St. Charles Theatre, New Orleans January 31, 1840]
  • Ludlow, Noah M. [N. M. Ludlow played Capt. Boroughcliffe in “Paul Jones, or Pilot of the German Ocean” by T. J. Dibdin for 3 nights at the Chatham Theatre, NY with James M. Scott as Long Tom Coffin, Mrs. H. Wallack as Kate Plowden and John Sefton as Sgt. Drill, September, 1828, p. 319-320 (see also Odel, Vol. III, pp. 416-417). Ludlow played the same part 6 nights in Cincinnati, OH, Saturday, August 29, 1829. “A ship, full rigged, with her sails set ... descended to the front of the stage ... ; suddenly the Pilot gave orders “’bout ship!” the sails were rapidly shifted ... the wind swelled them, the vessel careened to the pressure ... amidst the admiration and general applause of the house,” pp. 345-346; in the spring of 1831, Ludlow produced “Paul Jones, the Pilot of the German Ocean” in Natchez, MS, p. 377; in May, 1831 they played at the Salt house Theatre, St. Louis with John Gilbert as Long Tom Coffin, p. 379; the play was a stock piece when they played the month of September, 1831 in Nashville, TN, p. 385; Ludlow concluded the evening of January 1, 1835 in Mobile, AL with the play, p. 424; and for Ludlow’s benefit the season closed with the play November 2, 1844 at the St. Louis Theatre, p. 608]
  • Brown, T. Allston, Vol. I, p. 215. [Edward Eddy played Long Tom Coffin March 8, 1875 at Niblo’s Garden]
  • Nicoll, Allardyce, Vol. V, pp. 363, 791. [“Paul Jones” a comic opera, written by Henry Brougham Farnie, music by (Jean) Robert Planquette, was presented in Bolton (“The Provinces”) December 12, 1888 and at The Prince of Wales’s Theatre (Tottenham Court-road, London) January 12, 1889; licensed by the Lord Chamberlain]
  • Brown, T. Allston, Vol. III, p. 185. [“Paul Jones” was presented February 29, 1892 at the Union Square Theatre; This may have been the comic opera by Farnie]


“Rake Hellies” or “The Cradle of Liberty”

  • ------, “The Cradle of Liberty” by Captain Steven E. Glover [of the ship “Tallahassee”]
  • Quinn, Arthur Hobson, p. 477. [Steven E. Glover’s “Rake Hellies [dramatization of Lionel Lincoln]” played at the Camp Street Theatre, New Orleans, LA on March 24, 1831]
  • Smither, Nelle, p. 360. [“Rake Hellies” played at the American Theatre March 24, 26, 1831]
  • Smither, Nellie (1945), p. 171. [” ... the world premiere of Captain Stephen Glover’s new play, ‘Rake Hellies’” was reported on March 24, 1831]
  • Kendall, John S., p. 61. [J. W. Wallack played Mike Mainsail for the first time at the Camp Street Theatre with Captain Glover playing Noodle on April 22, 1832]
  • Sherman, Robert L. [Steven E. Glover’s “The Cradle of Liberty; or, Boston in 1775,” A Drama in Four Acts. A dramatization of Lionel Lincoln played at the Tremont Theater, Boston, MA, May 21, 1832] Odell, George C. D., Vol. III (1821-1834), “The Cradle of Liberty [Lionel Lincoln]” was produced July 4, 1832 at the American Theatre [Bowery], p. 576; “The Cradle of Liberty” ... was rocked (as possibly was the gallery) by Raymond as Mike Mainsail (George) Jones as Maj. Lincoln (W. F.) Gate as Seth Page, Mrs. Flynn as Cecil, and Miss Waring as Nab on October 30, 1832, p. 631;
  • Dunlap, William, p. 627. [attended “The Cradle of Liberty” at the Bowery Theatre (American Theatre) on Tuesday evening (entry dated Thursday, November 1, 1832); “All that was good was Coopers, the rest trash.”] Spirit of the Times and Life in New York, Review, “The Cradle of Liberty; or, Boston in 1775,” I, 47 (November 3, 1832), p. 2. [dramatization by Stephen E. Glover of Lionel Lincoln produced by Thomas S. Hamblin at the American Theater; “Capt. Glover’s “Cradle of Liberty,” has been brought out this week, and is a decided hit.” “Mike Mainsail, by Mr. Raymond, is the best character in the play.”]
  • Smither, Nelle, p. 331. [the national drama by S. E. Glover played at the American Theatre January 16, 21, 1832; January 14 and April 22, 1833; December 23, 25, 30, 1838; January 4, 23 and March 13, 1839; and at the St. Charles Theatre January 1, 1836]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. IV (1834-1843). [The Cradle of Liberty was given on July 4, 1837 at the Bowery Theatre (cast list is included], p. 168; The Cradle of Liberty was produced with W. G. Jones as Mike Mainsail, T. McCutcheon as Ralph, W. F. Gates as Seth Sage, Mrs. Herring as Job Pray, Chapman as Lord Noodle, Mrs. Hield as Nab, Mrs. Ayling as Agnes, and Miss Clarke as Cecil at the Bowery Theatre to celebrate Bunker Hill on June 17, 1842, p. 556]
  • Wilson, Arthur H., p. 192, 563. [“The Cradle of Liberty, or Boston in 1775” by S. E. Glover played at the Walnut Street Theatre on July 4, 1838 and on March 14, 1840]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. VI (1850-1857), p. 373. [The Cradle of Liberty was revived with Grattan Dawson and C. J. Smith at the National Theatre on November 20, 1854]
  • Brown, T. Allston, Vol. I, p. 321. [“The Cradle of Liberty played at the Chatham Theatre November 20, 1854]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. VII (1857-1865), p. 40. [“The Cradle” played as a second piece with A. W. Fenno as Ralph, N. B. Clarke as Mike Mainsail, O’Neil as Job Pray, J. B. Ferdon as Maj. Lincoln, H. Rynar as Lord Lesllie, Haviland as Lord Noodle, Mrs. Jordan as Nab, Miss De Courcy as Cecil and Mrs. Rynar as Agnes at the Bowery Theatre on September 10, 1857]


  • ------, “The Last of the Mohicans” by Captain Steven E. Glover [of the ship Tallahassee”]
  • The United States Literary Gazette, “Intelligence,” III , 12 (March 15, 1826), p. 469. [“It is said, that a gentleman is engaged in dramatizing this new novel by Mr. Cooper”]
  • Hoole, William Stanley, p. 97. [Glover’s “Last of the Mohicans” with Weathercock supported by the stock company played at the Charleston Theatre, January 6, 1830]
  • Quinn, Arthur Hobson, p. 459. [“The Last of the Mohicans” by S. E. Glover played at the Camp Street Theatre, New Orleans, LA on March 19, 1831]
  • Sherman, Robert L., 1944, p. 294. [“Last of the Mohicans” by Captain Grover; played in NY 1831 with Charles Thorne in a major role]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. III (1821-1834). [“Last of the Mohicans” was produced with Charles R. Thorne as Magua, Judah as Uncas, Clarke as Chingachgook, Field as Maj. Heyward, Moses Phillips as Gamut, Russell as Hawkeye, Mrs. Russell as Cora and Mrs. Thorne as Alice was produced at the Richmond Hill Theatre [Aaron Burr’s mansion] on December 27, 1831, p. 580; Mr. and Mrs. James Thorne played Magua and Cora February 22, 1832, in the closing days of the Richmond Hill, p. 648]
  • Smither, Nelle, p. 347. [“The Last of the Mohicans” by S. E. Glover played at the American Theatre April 26, 27, 29, 30 and May 7, 1830 with Pearson as Magua, Old Gray as Hawkeye, Russell as Gamut, and Mrs. Rowe as Cora; “The notices stated it had been played with distinguished success at Baltimore and Charleston;” also played at the American on March 15, 19, 1831; and February 22, 1832]
  • Ireland, Joseph N., Vol. II, p. 26. [Glover’s play produced on December 27, 1831 played at the newly opened Richmond Hill Theatre; lists cast]
  • Davis, Blanche Elizabeth, p. 170. [“Last of the Mohicans” by S. E. Glover played in New York City in 1831]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. IV (1834-1843). [“Last of the Mohicans” was revived with C. B. Parsons playing Magua, W. F. Gates Gamut, and Mrs. Herring Cora at the Bowery Theatre on September 1, 1834, p. 26; it played as a second piece at the Franklin Theatre between March 19ᵗʰ & 24ᵗʰ, 1839, p. 311; The Mohicans played as one of three productions as a benefit for the manager Charles R. Thorne at the Chatham Theatre on March 27, 1843, p. 643]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. IX (1870-1875), p. 325. [Luke Schoolcraft appeared in a burlesque of “Last of the Mohicans” at White’s Athenaeum (formerly the San Francisco Minstrels Hall) on January 13, 1873]


  • Sherman, Robert L., p. 457. [“Red Rover” by R. T. Weaver played in Philadelphia, PA in 1828 with Henry Wallack in a leading role]
  • Disher, Maurice Willson, p. 124. [Edward Fitzball (Ball) wrote “The Red Rover; or, The Tiger Of The Seas,” which played at the Adelphi Theatre, London in 1828]
  • James, Reese D., pp. 422-428, 450, 487, 560-561, 576. [“Red Rover” played for the first time Thursday, February 21, 1828 in Philadelphia with receipts of $704.00 and on February 22, 26, 28; March 11, 13, 20, 26; and April 5, 10; July 9, 11, 1828; June 29, 30, 1831; June 26, 27, 28, and November 5, 7, 1833]
  • Pagel, Carol Anne Ryan. [Chapter 5 includes a comparison of novel and of scenes from Chapman’s “The Red Rover” through detailed analysis of plot, subplots, pace, themes, and characters]
  • Wemyss, Francis Courtney, Vol. 1, pp. 149-150. [“The Red Rover” played at the Chestnut Theatre, Philadelphia, on February 21, 1828 with Red Rover played by Samuel H. Chapman (who had written the play) and Homespun by Mrs. DeLacey]
  • ------, Vol. 1, pp. 129-132. [includes the “Prologue to the “Red Rover” spoken by Mr. Wemyss and Mr. S. Chapman; written by R. P. Smith, Esq.” Wemyss discusses the rain scene in which the rain (3 gauze curtains) “descended amid thunders of applause” but “after performing its part to admiration, had to ascend again to the skies, amid the laughter of the audience.”]
  • Saturday Evening Post, “Dramatic Intelligence,” , VII, 846 (Saturday, March 15, 1828). [Chapman’s adaptation of Red Rover at the Chesnut Theatre, Philadelphia, PA. (performances Tuesday March 11 and Thursday March 13, 1828); “The Red Rover continues to draw tolerable houses.” “We wish that all our readers who have not seen this splendid production, would avail themselves of the first opportunity to do so, as it is really the finest scenic representation we have ever witnessed. Miss Clara Fisher, who has played at every theatre of note in Great Britain, is said to have remarked that the moving panorama of the departure of The Caroline is the finest scene she has ever beheld upon any stage ... “]
  • Durham, Weldon B., p. 301. [“Red Rover,” a nautical melodrama, played at the Lafayette Theatre (NY) during the 1827-1828 season and “featured battles at sea between ships floating on the theatre’s water tank”] Hodge, Francis, p. 20. [“When the spectacle was successful, as in the sinking of the Caroline in Red Rover, which many in the audience declared absolutely real, the staff’s expert craftsmanship was fully apparent.”]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. III (1821-1834). [Edmund Simpson (manager of the Park) played the Red Rover, Barry Wilder, Hilson Fid, Placide Homespun, Woodhull Nightingale (D.) Reed the Pilot, Mrs. Hill Mrs. Wyllis, Mrs. Hilson Gertrude and Mrs. Wheatley Mrs. de Lacy played in “The Red Rover (a new nautical melodrama)” at the Park Theatre, on May 1, 1828, p. 319; Another version of Red Rover “dramatized by a gentleman of this city, expressly for this theatre” was elaborately staged at the Lafayette Theatre on May 26, 1828 (the night the Bowery burned),” “in consequence of the great display of scenery and machinery ... it will constitute the entire” evening’s entertainment, scenery by Grain and Jones, Watkins Burroughs played Red Rover, H. Wallack Dick Fid, Scott Scipio, Peter Richings Wilder, Mrs. Walstein Madame de Lacy, Mrs. Sandford Gertrude, and Miss Eberle Roderick, p. 351-352; The Red Rover was revived on January 2, 1829 with William Duffy as Red Rover, Laidley was Wilder, J. M. Scott (the manager) Scipio, Mrs. Greene Mrs Wyllis, and Mrs. Talbot Gertrude at the Lafayette Theatre, p. 422]
  • Ireland, Joseph N., Vol. I. [lists cast for a May 1, 1828 production, p. 550; and a May 26, 1828 production, p. 583]
  • Booth, Michael R., Southern, Richard, Marker, Frederick & Lise-Lone, & Davies, Robertson, Vol VI 1750-1880, p. 217-218. [Edward Fitzball’s “The Red Rover” played at the Adelphi Theatre 1828]
  • New-York Mirror and Ladies’ Literary Gazette, “Park Theatre,” V, 44 (Saturday, May 10, 1828), p. 351. [“Cooper’s ‘Glorious Tale of the Sea,’ as one of the leading London periodicals terms the Red Rover, is likely to have a successful run. It is skillfully dramatized, and has been produced in fine style. ... The scene, in particular, where the gallant bark of the Red Rover bears down upon the boat, is as fine a scenic illusion, and ns (is) cleverly an executed ,mechanical manoeuvre, as we ever witnessed within the walls of a theatre. ... there is some fine acting in it, particularly Hilson’s Richard Fid, Messrs. Simpson and Barry, the former as the Rover and the latter as Lieutenant Wilder, acted with great spirit and discrimination. ... Mr. Povey, who as Sib, “the nigger,” made a “gigantic stride in his profession.” ... It is one of Mr. P.’s most felicitous performances.”]
  • ------, V, 47 (May 31, 1828), p. 375. [The nautical drama of the Red Rover, taken from Mr. Cooper’s novel of that name, has been produced at the Lafayette theatre, in a very superior manner. The cast is strong, and the scenery exceedingly beautiful. The panoramic views alone are worth the price of admission.”]
  • Brown, T. Allston, p. 35. [Thomas Abthorpe Cooper played in “Red Rover” at the Park Theatre on May 1, 1828]
  • Nicoll, Allardyce, Vol. IV, p. 313. [“The Red Rover; or, The Mutiny of the Dolphin” was licenced by the Lord Chamberlain February 14, 1829 and played at the Adelphi Theatre February 9, 1829]
  • Times [London] (February 9, 1829). [announcement of first production of Fitzball’s “Red Rover”]
  • ------, Review of Fitzball’s “Red Rover” (February 10, 1829). [” ... the chief merit is made to consist in the scenery, and all the bustle and noise of an animated melodrama ... “]
  • ------, Review of Weaver’s “The Red Rover; or, The Mutiny of the Caroline (February 23, 1829). [announcement of first production]
  • ------, John Bull, IX, 41 (February 8, 1829). [ad for Fitzball’s “Red Rover”]
  • ------, IX, 49 (February 15, 1829). [announcement of Weaver’s adaptation of “The Red Rover” at Sadler’s Wells Theatre for February 23ʳᵈ]
  • ------, IX, 57 (February 22, 1829). [play postponed to March 2ⁿᵈ because of the “very extensive machinery need for the production”]
  • ------, IX, 65 (March 1, 1829). [play promised for the 2ⁿᵈ]
  • ------, IX, 73 (March 8, 1829). [play would be “continued until further notice”]
  • London Weekly Review, Review, “The Red Rover” [dramatization], III (February 21, 1829), pp. 124-125. [thought the play a complete success; “so well known” that it didn’t need to be summarized; produced at the Adelphi Theatre, London]
  • Brown, Eluned, p. 127. [Adelphi Theatre performance on March 17, 1829: Mr. Yates: “He looked the bold pirate to perfection and his powers of mimicry made him an excellent performer of characters in disguise otherwise errant trash”] Daily Cincinnati Gazette, Announcement of “Grand Melo Dramatic Marine Spectacle, The Red Rover” (November 20, 21, 23, 25 and December 19, 1829). [“dramatized by a gentleman of this city”]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. IV (1834-1843). [“The Red Rover” was revived as a second piece at the Franklin Theatre with William Sefton as the Red Rover on September 18 & 23 1837, p. 238; it was produced at the Chatham Theatre on August 10, 1840, p. 391]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. V (1843-1850). [“Red Rover” was presented at the Bowery Theatre, November, 1843, p. 22; “Red Rover” was presented on New Years Eve, 1845 at the Chatham Theatre, p. 197]
  • Wilson, Arthur H., p. 465. [“The Red Rover, or, The Meeting of the Dolphin” by S. H. Chapman played at the National Theatre on Monday, July 26, 1852]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. VII (1857-1865), p. 407. [“Red Rover” played at the New Bowery Theatre in early April, 1862]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. VIII (1865-1870), p. 663. [“The Red Rover” played at the Brooklyn Theatre on April 16, 1870] Rees, James, p. 138. [Francis C. Wemyss wrote “Red Rover” which played at Pittsburgh, PA (actually Wemyss had asked Samuel H. Chapman to write the adaption for which he paid Chapman $20.00 for every night the play was acted)]


“The Indian Girl”

  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. IV (1834-1843). [“The Indian Girl (Wept of Wish-ton Wish)” was produced with the ever popular Mlle. Celine Celeste at the National Theatre on October 7, 1838, p. 292]


  • Davis, Blanche Elizabeth, p. 170. [“Miantonomoh” by an anonymous author played in New York City in 1830]
  • Quinn, Arthur Hobson, p. 464. [Anonymous: “Miantonimoh” (dramatization of Wept of Wish-Ton-Wish) played at the Bowery Theatre, November 12, 1830] Smither, Nelle, p. 87. [“Another native play ... was presented February 5 (1831) with the author in the role of Matacom, a Wampanoag Chief. According to an announcement which appeared in the Louisiana Advertiser on January 18, this play had been introduced in Richmond and was not the Miantonimoh which had been given in New York.”]

“Narramattah; or, The Lost Found”

  • Brown, T. Allston, p. 38. [“Narramattah” played at the Park Theatre on April 15, 1830]
  • Ireland, Joseph N., Vol. I, p. 625. [January 15, 1830 saw Simpson as Conanchet, Barry as Metacom, Chapman as Heathcot, Placide as Dr. Ergot, Mrs. Hackett as Mrs. Heathcot, Mrs. Wheatley as Faith, and Mrs. Sharpe as Narramattah]

“The Wept of Wish-Ton-Wish”

  • Wemyss, Francis Courtney, Chapter XXVIII, p. 214. [Celeste played in the “Wept of the Wish-ton-wish” on December 22 at the Chesnut Street Theatre]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. III (1821-1834). [the brilliant Augustus A. Addams appeared as Conanchet and Mrs. Hamblin as Naramattah (also spelled Narramattah) in the melodrama “Miantonimoh, or, the Wept of Wish-ton-Wish” produced November 12, 1830 with the 7ᵗʰ performance on November 20ᵗʰ, entire cast listing, p. 518, a renewed run began December 3, 1830, at the Bowery Theatre, p. 519, and again on January 7, 1831 (although it was winter and the Bowery was almost in the country: Canal & Elizabeth Streets), p. 520]
  • Durham, Weldon B., p. 115. [Thomas Sowerby Hamblin “started the practice of long continuous runs of a week’s to a month’s duration ... for successful spectacular melodramas, including, between 1830 and 1836, “Miantonimah; or, The Wept of Wish-Ton-Wish;” ... “The Water Witch” ... “] Quinn, Arthur Hobson, p. 464. [Anonymous: “The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish” played at the Bowery Theatre November 12, 1830]
  • James, Reese D., p. 478. [“The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish” played in Philadelphia April 18, 19, 20, 1831 with Mrs. Duff as Narrah Mattah; Adams as Conauchet; May 23, 1831 with same leads in “Miantonimoh”]
  • Booth, Michael R., Southern, Richard, Marker, Frederick & Lise-Lone, & Davies, Robertson, Vol VI 1750-1880, p. 222. [W. B. Bernard’s “The Wept of Wish-Ton Wish” played at the Adelphi in 1831]
  • Literary Gazette and Journal of Belles Lettres, Arts, Sciences, Etc., Review, 775 (Saturday November 26, 1831), p. 764. [“A piece called the “Wept of the Wish - ton - wish” was produced at this theatre on Monday, for the purpose of introducing Mlle. Celeste to an Adelphi audience. ... Celeste is a fine-looking creature, with magnificent eyes and teeth. Her acting was very effective throughout ... We do not remember to have seen a finer piece of acting (in dumb show) than the deaths of the Chief and Hope in the last scene. The author, Mr. Barnard complains that his drama has suffered much in effect and intelligibility by being cut down from a full piece to an interlude.”]
  • Nicoll, Allardyce, Vol. IV, pp. 265. [“The Wept of Wish-Ton-Wish” a burletta by William Bayle Bernard was licensed by the Lord Chamberlain on November 12, 1831; produced in London November 21, 1831 at the Adelphi Theatre and March 1, 1832 at the Royal Coburg Theatre; No. 546 of Dicks’ Standard Plays]
  • Athenaeum, Review of dramatization [“The Wept of Wish-ton-wish” at the Adelphi Theatre, London], IV (December 3, 1831), p. 788. [“The story may have been clearly told in the book, but in that case the dramatist has got into a terrible tangle in winding it off.”] Hamblin, Thomas S., Producer, “The Wept of Wish-Ton-Wish,” Dramatization, Bowery Theatre, NY, Fall, 1834.
  • Mayorga, Margaret G., p. 144. [” ... Cooper’s The Wept of the Wish-ton-Wish, which was dramatized by an unknown author (1834). “The two act play which evolved is remarkable for some excellent psychology of character; psychology, in fact, which was considerably in advance of popular dramatic usage.”]
  • Quinn, Arthur Hobson, p. 494. [Anonymous: “The Wept of Wish-Ton-Wish,” Played at the Bowery Theatre December 1, 1834] Ireland, Joseph N., Vol. II, p. 120. [Celeste played in the “Wept” December 1, 1834; lists cast]
  • James, Reese D., p. 628. [“The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish” played in Philadelphia December 25, 26, 27, 1834 with Celeste as Hope Gough and as Maramattah; receipts: on the 25ᵗʰ - $600; 26ᵗʰ - $340; and on the 27ᵗʰ - $560 (Celeste’s benefit)]
  • Brown, T. Allston, Vol. I, p. 113. [Celeste played in “Wept of the Wish-ton-Wish” at the Bowery Theatre on December 1, 1836; and Mme. took a benefit October 17, 1836 at the National Theatre, p. 242] Sherman, Robert L., p. 584. [“Wept of the Eishton Wist” (probably a typo) by an unidentified author played in NY in 1834 with Mlle. Celeste in the lead]
  • New-York Mirror, and Ladies’ Literary Gazette, “Notices of the Drama,” 102 (Saturday December 6, 1834). [Celeste in “The Wept of the Wish-ton-wish:” “Her characters in each of these (3 plays) are silent ... we have never seen any thing upon the New-York stage to equal Celeste. ... her profits will not fall short of ten thousand dollars for a month’s performance.”]
  • Mlle. Celeste, having returned from Europe “a most extraordinary pantomimist and one of the most graceful dancers” ... she presented numerous melodramas of which The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish was one of the great successes. She gave “La Sylphide” for the first time in America on April 15, 1835. Unable to speak American, she played her earlier roles in pantomime.
  • Wilson, Arthur H., p. 664. [“The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish, or, The Indian Girl” played at the Arch Street Theatre on March 18, 19, 20, 27 1835; March 31 and April 1, 8, 1836; July 8, 1837; August 24, 25, 1847; July 19, 20, 1847 and at the Chestnut Street Theatre on June 8, 12, 20, November 6, 7, 13, 21, 1835; June 22, 23, September 12, 14, and December 7-9, 1836; October 29, 30 and December 4, 10, 1838; August 27, 30, 1839; January 6, 8, February 13, 1840; October 26, 28, 1842; February 6, 7, 1850; February 2, 3, 5, 1853 and at the Walnut Street theatre on July 6, 18, 19, 1844; July 12, 13, 1848; November 26, 27, 1851; May 14, 1852; June 16, 1853]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. IV (1834-1843). [“The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish” was Celeste’s third offering: Celeste played Hope Gough, the Puritan’s daughter, and Naramattah, the Wept of Wish-ton-Wish, W. F. Gates played Satisfaction Skunk, Alexander Pickering as Maj. Gough, McClure as Fearnought Langton, Stickney as Ezekiel Davis, Mrs. Stevenson as Abundance, David Ingersoll as Conanchet, and Mrs. Flynn as Faith at the Bowery Theatre on December 1, 1834, p. 29, 30; and again in January, 1835, pp. 29-31; for the last of her many benefits she again appeared in scenes from the show on May 1, 1835, p. 33; Celeste returned September 25, 1835 and played the Wept with two other attractions until October 4ᵗʰ, p. 73; she returned with her third most popular presentation April 22, 1836, p. 82; Celeste played “The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish” at the National Theatre during September 1836, p. 137; again with C. R. Thorne playing Conanchet on October 22-24, 1836 and as a benefit for Miss Watson on November 8, p. 140; Celeste returned to the Park Theatre on December 16, 1839 for two weeks with the play in her repertoire, p. 349; Celeste returned to the Bowery Theatre September 9-23, 1839 with the play, p. 364; She played in The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish for her final appearance at the Chatham Theatre on June 1, 1840, p. 388; Celeste returned to the Bowery Theatre and played Naramattah with J. M. Wallack, Jr. as Conanchet, Lewis as Uncas, J. M. Scott as Gough, W. F. Gates as Satisfaction Skunk, and Mrs. Herring as Faith during her second week beginning October 3, 1842, p. 626]
  • Smither, Nelle, p. 372. [“The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish” a burletta by W. B. Bernard was presented at the St. Charles Theatre December 24, 25, 26, 28, 29, 1835; January 2, February 11, 13, 1836; March 10, 11, 13, 1837; March 11, 12, 20, 30, April 23, 1839; and May 1, 1840]
  • Brown, T. Allston, Vol. I, p. 249. [“The Wept of Wish-ton-wish” played at the National Theatre January 21, 1839]
  • Carson, William G. B., 1965, [St. Louis, May 24-25, 1838: Celeste played Narramattah]
  • ------, 1965, p. 284. [Madame Celeste devoted two evenings of her 12 performances at the St. Louis Theatre to “The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish” in the first weeks of June, 1839]
  • George C. D., Vol. V (1843-1850). [Benedict de Bar appeared as Conanchet in “The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish” on April 8, 1844 the Bowery Theatre [he also played Long Tom Coffin in The Pilot the same night], p. 25; Wyzeman Marshall played Virginius with Miss H. Vallee as Naramattah July 12, 1847 at the Bowery Theatre, p. 274; Benedict de Bar played Skunk with Miss Vallee as Naramattah November 5, 1847 at the Chatham Theatre, p. 359; Mrs. H. Lewis (the male impersonatrix) starred in “The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish”, in June, 1850 at Chanfrau’s New National Theatre (formerly the Chatham), p. 550]
  • Hoole, William Stanley, pp. 124, 149, 150. [first performance of “Wept of Wish ton-Wish” at the Charleston Theatre was on November 16, 1846 and was repeated on November 20, 1846. Maggie Mitchell appeared in the role of Narramattah on December 28, 1858 and on January 5, 1859]
  • Moody, Richard, p. 104. [“One of the first of the few Indian plays brought out in the fifties was a two-act dramatization ... ” “First produced in 1851, the play seems to have had some moderate degree of success and provided a strikingly faithful stage presentation of the events and characters of Cooper’s novel”]
  • Brown, T. Allston, Vol. I, p. 439. [“Wept of the Wish-ton-wish” was revived November 22, 1856 at the Chatham Theatre with J. H. Allen as Connanchet, Charles Warwich as Uncas, D. Oakley as Heathcoat, and Miss Hathaway as Narramatta; Maggie Mitchell played Narramattah on August 10, 1857 at Tripler Hall]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. VI (1850-1857), p. 113; [Mlle. Celeste appeared in “The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish” (one of “her old favourites”) in November, 1851 at the Broadway Theater, p. 113 and in June, 1852 at the Broadway Theater, p.120; Mrs. Barney Williams was seen as Naramattah on January 30, 1852 at the National Theatre, p. 142; Miss Vallee (Mrs. De Bar) played Naramattah and Benedict De Bar played Skunk September 29, 1853 at the Bowery Theatre, p. 304; The Wept was played again in January, 1855, p. 368; it played in January, 1856 at the National Theatre (“a stale January”), p. 466; Maggie Mitchell (“a reigning favorite”) played Naramattah, August 10, 1857 at Burton’s New Theatre (formerly the Metropolitan on Broadway opposite Bond St.), p. 529. ]
  • Brown, T. Allston, Vol. I, p. 452. [Senorita Isabel Cubas’ first attempt at a speaking part was as Narramatta when she had one word (“Father”) to exclaim as the curtain fell. She managed to say “Farder.”]
  • Brown, T. Allston, Vol. II, p. 191. [Helen Western played Naramattah at the New Bowery Theatre February 18, 1860]
  • Schoberlin, Melvin, p. 132. [“Probably most successful [play of the winter season 1864] of all was Wept of the Wish-ton-Wish.” Second Lt. Harry Richmond, who returned with the ill-famed Third Colorado Calvary on Dec. 22ⁿᵈ, appeared as the leading man. Richmond probably wore the splendid war bonnet of Chief White Antelope which he had brought home with him. The play ran 3 nights to “jammed houses”]
  • Daily Rocky Mountain News (December 28, 1864). [“The great Indian drama will be presented tonight at the Denver Theatre, with the new and splendid Indian costumes taken (as plunder) in the big battle of Sand Creek.”]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. VII (1857-1865). [Miss St. Clair played in “The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish” at the Bowery Theatre on November 20, 1857, p. 41; Annie Hathaway appeared as Naramattah at the National Theatre on October 12, 1857, p. 47; Miss Louise Wells added pantomimically The Wept as a second piece at the Bowery Theatre on February 10, 1859, p. 232; Charlotte Crampton and Susan Denin played at the Bowery in the last weeks of May, 1859, p. 235; it played again at the New Bowery Theatre in February 1860, p. 241; and at the Bowery the last of May 1862, p. 402; Senorita Isabella Cubas appeared at the Winter Garden on January 26, 1863, p. 478; Isabella Cubas and George C. Boniface were seen in the play at the Academy of Music, Brooklyn on May 11, 1863, p. 534; Fanny Herring revived the play as a second piece with “Vamp, the Fireman’s Dog” at the Old Bowery on December 30, 1863, p. 566; Leo Hudson played Naramattah and Boniface was Conanchet at the New Bowery on December 4, 1863, p. 570; Fanny Herring appeared at the Park Theatre, Brooklyn on February 16, 1864, p. 615; Miss Leo Hudson appeared at the New Bowery Theatre on January 16, 1865, p. 660]
  • Brown, T. Allston, Vol. II. [“The Wept of the Wish-ton-wish” played November 17, 1864 at the Academy of Music, p. 48; Leo Hudson acted Narramattah in “Wept of the Wish-ton-wish” and George Davenport made his first appearance at the New Bowery Theatre as Content Heathcote on December 4, 1864, p. 205]
  • Kendall, John S. [the performance of “The Wept of Wish-ton- Wish” at the St. Charles Theater, in 1838, was denounced as unworthy of attention; Clementine DeBar’s singing was the only commendable feature of the play, p. 124; in the 1866-1867 season, Marie Zoé playing both Henry de Lacy and Lavengro in “Narzamattah, The Indian Girl,” p. 511]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. VIII (1865-1870). [Marie Zoe played in “The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish” at the Academy of Music, Brooklyn on February 14, 1866, p. 107; Miss Fanny Herring appeared at the Bowery Theatre on February 18, 1867, p. 172; (” A succession of classic or at least famous plays must have delighted many Brooklyn hearts:”) at the Park Theatre (Brooklyn) the last of May, 1867, p. 243; Fanny Herring appeared at Seaver’s Opera House, Williamsburgh on June 5, 1867, p. 258; Mlle. Ravel appeared as Naramattah at The Bowery Theatre on June 27, 1868, p. 313; Brooklyn Opera House (formerly Seaver’s and then Edward’s) on October 9, 1867, p. 400; Brooklyn Opera House on March 3, 1868, p. 403; Marie Zoe, the “Cuban Sylph” recreated Celeste’s role at the Bowery Theatre the last of February, 1869, p. 448; Miss Kate Raymond mimed The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish at the Olympic Theatre, Brooklyn on December 1, 1869, p. 673]
  • Durham, Weldon B., p. 118. [“The Wept of Wish-Ton-Wish” continued to play at the Bowery Theatre under the direction of George L. Fox until May, 1867 when W. B. Freligh replaced Fox. In the summer the theater was sold at auction]
  • Sherman, Robert L., 1947. [McVickers Theater, Chicago, Il, February 17, 1868: Mlle. Zoe in the “Wept of Wish-ton-Wish”]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. IX (1870-1875). [Fanny Herring revived the “very old” play at Tony Pastor’s Theater (Bouwerie) on July 3, 1871, p. 80; the three Watson Brothers, Little Josie, Miss Raymond and James Collins appeared in “The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish” at the Olympic Theatre, Brooklyn on January 16, 1871, p. 113; it played at the Olympic Theatre on April 20, 1872, p. 228; Marie Zoe appeared with Harry Sinclair as Conanchet, Thomas Jackson as Maj. Gough, and Lizzie Kelsey as Faith at the Metropolitan Theatre (585 Broadway; formerly White’s Athenaeum) on March 2, 1874, p. 468]
  • Tompkins, Eugene and Kilby, Quincy, p. 185. [Mlle. Zoe was seen in “The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish” on May 18, 1872]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. X (1875-1879), p. 654. [Mollie Williams (“sunk from the Bowery Theatre”) played “The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish” at the Volksgarten on November 25-30, 1878]
  • Fishman, Josephine, pp. 92-97. [lists performances of “The Wept of the Wish Ton Wish” from February, 1831 to November, 1878]


  • Durham, Weldon B., p. 115. [Hamblin “started the practice of long continuous runs of a week’s to a month’s duration ... for successful spectacular melodramas, including, between 1830 and 1836, “Miantonimah; or, The Wept of Wish-Ton Wish;” ... “The Water Witch” ... ] Quinn, Arthur Hobson, p. 494. [Charles W. Taylor wrote “The Water Witch” which played at the Bowery Theatre March 21, 1830]
  • Brown, T. Allston, Vol. I. [Tom Tiller was one of George Jones’ original characters which he played in the 3 seasons he was at the Bowery, p. 107. He played in “The Water Witch” at the Bowery Theatre on March 21, 1830, p. 109]
  • Davis, Blanche Elizabeth, p. 172. [“The Water Witch” by C. W. Taylor played in New York City in 1830] Nicoll, Allardyce, Vol IV, pp. 97, 551, 642. [“The Water Witch; or, The Skimmer of the Sea” by an unknown author (may have been W. B. Bernard) was licenced by the Lord Chamberlain November 13, 1830 and played at the Adelphi Theatre November 15, 1830]
  • Literary Gazette and Journal of Belles Lettres, Arts, Sciences, Etc., Review, 772 (Saturday November 20, 1830), p. 756. [“On Monday the “Water Witch” was dramatized here (The Adelphi) by Mr. Bernard, the editor of Retrospections of the Stage, and met with perfect success; though it never struck us that Mr. Cooper’s thrice-told tale and rodomontading was peculiarly adapted for the stage. The piece, however, was as well contrived as circumstances admitted; and what the author has done is well done, considering that he had to yield so much to make way for the clever and really surprising machinery with which his drama is accompanied. The sea-scenes and shipping are wonderfully managed — the acting excellent — and the whole has gone off with èclat during the week.”]
  • The Ariel a Semimonthly Literary and Miscellaneous Gazette, “Expedition,” [announcement of dramatization of the “Water Witch”], IV (Philadelphia, December 11, 1830), p. 134. [announcement of its forthcoming at the Chesnut Street Theatre, ” ... adapted to the stage by a gentleman of this city.”]
  • James, Reese D., pp. 462. [“Water Witch” had its first performance in Philadelphia Saturday, December 25, 1830 with receipts of $697, also played the 28ᵗʰ]
  • Quinn, Arthur Hobson, p. 494. [Richard Penn Smith wrote “The Water Witch; or, The Skimmer of the Seas.” Dramatization at the Chestnut Street Theater, Philadelphia, PA, December 25, 1830; no known copies: Ware, p. vi]
  • Sherman, Robert L., p. 581. [Richard P. Smith’s version played in Philadelphia, PA in 1830 with William B. Wood in a major role]
  • Quinn, Arthur Hobson, p. 213. [F. C. Wemyss played Tom Tiller at the Chestnut Street Theatre on December 25, 1830 in an adaption of The Water Witch written by (Richard) Penn Smith] Wemyss, Francis Courtney, pp. 164. [“Richard Penn Smith also produced a new piece, for Christmas Night, founded on Cooper’s novel of the Water Witch, in which I had to play Tom Tiller. Mr. Young, for whom the part was originally compiled, returning it to the managers at the eleventh hour, as too long he being unable to commit the words to memory. My faculty, in that respect, being notorious throughout the profession, it was useless to say I could not do it, ... “]
  • Ireland, Joseph N., Vol. I, p. 646. [“Water Witch” played February 24, 1831; ” ... far less successful than C. W. Taylor’s”], Vol. 1, p. 658. [C. W. Taylor’s “Water Witch” played March 21, 1831; lists cast]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. III (1821-1834). [“On February 24ᵗʰ was produced a version of The Water Witch, less successful than C. W. Taylor’s, later, at the Bowery.” Barry played Tom Tiller, Placide Peter Prong, Richings Capt. Ludlow, Mrs. Blake Seadrift, and Mrs. Wallack Alida at the Park Theatre, 1831; “Thomas Placide as Cicero had another opportunity to show how good he was in negro characters. The scenery involved a moving diorama of a trip through the Narrows, past Ellis Island, and up the river to Hellgate,” p. 499. A more successful version by C. W. Taylor with George Jones at Tom Tiller, G. G. Stevenson as Ludlow, Ferdinand Durang as Trysail, W. F. Gates as Nathan, C. W. Taylor as Buntline, Jackson as Mizen, Collingbourne as Van Beverout, Miss Pelby as Alida, Mrs. Stevenson as Deborah and Mrs. Hamblin as Seadrift ran 10 performances beginning March 21-31, 1831 at the Bowery Theatre, p. 522; a performance May 6, 1831 and Mrs. Hamblin saying farewell to Seadrift on May 11ᵗʰ at the Bowery Theatre, p. 524; Mrs. Hamblin again played Seadrift on the June 21, 1831 and on the 22ⁿᵈ gave her 40ᵗʰ performance in the role, p. 526; Mrs. Alexander Drake played Seadrift on September 1, 1831 at the Bowery, p. 562; Miss Ann Duff Waring was Seadrift and Emily Mestayer succeeded Miss Pelby as Alida on October 8, 1831 at the Bowery, p. 565; “The Water Witch” was given at the patriotic opening of the American Theatre, Bowery (renamed because of the Joshua Anderson riots at the Park Theatre) on October 18, 1831 and again on the 21ˢᵗ & 22ⁿᵈ, p. 566; and on November 14, 1831, p. 567; Mrs. Hamblin returned from abroad and appeared for the first time in the new season as Seadrift, April 25, 1832 and again on the 28ᵗʰ, p. 573; May 16, 1832 was the 104ᵗʰ performance of “The Water Witch” p. 574]
  • Quinn, Arthur Hobson, p. 494. [J. S. Wallace’s “The Water Witch,” played at the Arch Street Theatre, Philadelphia, PA, 1831-1832 season]
  • James, Reese D., pp. 506-507. [“The Water Witch” played in Philadelphia December 23, 24, 26, 27, 29, 31, 1831 and January 3, 5, 21, 1832]
  • Clapp, p. 295. [H. J. Finn’s “Water Witch” “had a good run” in Boston, MA at the Tremont Theatre in the 1831-32 season]
  • Rees, James, p. 139. [James S. Wallace wrote what was considered the best adaptation of “The Water Witch.” It played at the Arch Street Theatre in 1832 and 1833]
  • Carson, William G. B., 1965, p. 152. [Mrs. Hamblin brought “The Water Witch” to the Salt House Theatre to play two nights sometime between August 12ᵗʰ and 19ᵗʰ, 1835; not a financial success]
  • Ludlow, Noah M. [Mrs. Hamblin played Seadrift in “Water Witch” by W. B. Bernard in St. Louis, MO on August 17, 18, 1835, p. 438; Mr. Daniel Marble played Nathan at the St. Charles Theatre in New Orleans in mid March, 1843, p. 567]
  • Smither, Nelle, p. 372. [“The Water Witch,” written by Henry James Finn, played at the American Theatre January 19, 21, 24 and November 20, 21, 22, 1839]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. IV (1834-1843). [Mrs. Hamblin played Seadrift in the second act of the play for her benefit at the Franklin Theatre on February 28, 1838, p. 241; Mrs. Hamblin again played Seadrift (“her famous part”), T. McCutcheon as Tiller, and Miss Harvey as Alida at the Olympic Theatre (“the handsomest playhouse in America” at 444 Broadway) on June 11, 1838, p. 253; Mrs. Charles (the former Mrs. Hamblin) played Seadrift (her 150ᵗʰ performance) at her new husband’s benefit at the Chatham Theatre on June 5, 1840, p. 389; Mrs. Blake played Seadrift with J. R. Scott as Tom Tiller at the Chatham Theatre (“The Chatham was never intended to appeal to the intelligent portion of the community”) on June 28, 1842, p. 571; Mrs. G. Jones played Seadrift at the Bowery Theatre for several nights starting September 14, 1842, p. 624]
  • Dramatic Mirror and Literary Companion [edited by James Rees], Review of “The Water Witch, or the Skimmer of the Seas,” Vol. I, IV (Saturday, September 11, 1841), p. 38. [“Dinneford (The Arch Street Theatre) has produced the nautical drama ... with a truly imposing effect, like all other spectacles, which this indefatigable and worthy manager undertakes.” The reviewer stayed to the end of the play “an unusual occurrence” and recommended the play to the public “who are ever ready to patronize a play, when well represented.”]
  • Wilson, Arthur H., p. 248. [“The Water Witch” by J. S. Wallace played at the Arch Street Theatre on September 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 1841]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. V (1843-1850), p. 25. [“The Water Witch” was revived on May 31, 1844 at the Bowery Theatre with J. R. Scott as Tom Tiller, Mrs. Phillips as Seadrift, E. L. Davenport as Yankee Nathan. The theater burned soon after and reopened 3 months later on Aug. 4, 1854. It seated 4,000, had a stage 126 feet deep, and was still standing in 1929 when it again burned]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. VI (1850-1857), p. 35. [lists cast of “The Water Witch” October 7, 1850 at the National Theatre with Harry A. Perry as Tom Tiller, Joseph Jefferson as Nathan, Miss Mestayer as Eudora and Miss Crocker as Alida, and on October 10ᵗʰ F. C. Wemyss joined the cast]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. VII (1857-1865), p. 489. [Miss Fanny Herring as Seadrift, Harry Langdon as Tom Tiller, W. Petrie as von Beverout, G. W. Thompson as Capt. Ludlow, and Harry Chapman as Nathan played at Fox’s Old Bowery on September 1, 1862]


  • Literary Gazette and Journal of Belles Lettres, Arts, Sciences, Etc., Review, 839 (Saturday February 16, 1833), p. 108. [” ... the principal scenes and characters are preserved. It is extremely well got up; ... and the last scene, the Giant Stairs, is particularly good, and had a striking effect. Yates as the Bravo was excellent; it is a capital study. The same remark may apply to O. Smith as the old fisherman, ... the “Bravo” promises to be a lasting favourite.” lists cast at the Adelphi Theatre]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. III (1821-1834), p. 639, 640. [“The Bravo, or, The Black Gondola,” with Tuthill as Antonio and Mrs. Charles F. (Meek) McClure as Gelsomina, June 22, 1833, at The American Theatre, Bowery]
  • Nicoll, Allardyce, Vol. IV, pp. 259, 274. [“The Bravo; or The Bridge of Sighs” by C. Z. Barnett was presented at the Surrey Theatre February 21, 1833; Duncombe’s British Theatre, 1828-1852, Vol.XI. “The Bravo, A Story of Venice” by John Baldwin Buckstone was licenced by the Lord Chamberlain February 9, 1833 and played at the Adelphi Theatre February 11, 1833; No. 861 Dicks’ Standard Plays]
  • Wilson, Arthur H., pp. 555, 721. [W. T. Moncrieff wrote “The Bravo of Venice” which was premiered at the Walnut Street Theatre January 7, 1835 and continued the 10, 11, and 13ᵗʰ]
  • ------, p. 562. [“Council of Ten, or The Venetian Bravo,” played at the Walnut Street Theatre September 22, 23, 25, 1841]
  • ------, p. 661. [“The Venetian, or The Bravo’s Oath,” was first performed at the Arch Street Theatre March 24, 1849 and played through the 31ˢᵗ; it returned on November 3; April 6, 7; October 11, 12, 15, 17, 1850; April 4-5, 8, 9, 10, 1851; October 8, 9, 13, 19, 21, 1852; at the Chesnut Street Theatre October 28, 31, 1854; and at the City Museum May 5, 9, 1855]
  • Quinn, Arthur Hobson, p. 213. [Penn Smith wrote a blank verse dramatization as a five-act tragedy in 1836 which was produced as “The Venetian” at the Arch Street Theatre in 1849; manuscript with his papers] Smith, Irvine N., pp. 236-237. [R. P. Smith wrote a one-act dramatization in blank verse in 1836; rewritten as “The Venetian” in 1849]
  • Sherman, Robert L., p. 572. [“The Venetian” written by Mary Ann Russell played in New York, 1845 with M. A. Russell in the lead]
  • Wilson, Arthur H., p. 555, [Richard Penn Smith wrote “The Bravo, or, The Red Mask” which played at the Walnut Street Theatre, Philadelphia, PA on October 2, 4, 6, 1849; also Fishman, p. 102]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. VII. [“The Venetian, or, the Bravo’s Oath” played on May 27, 1858 at the Bowery Theatre ... “charmed, or possibly appalled, with Johnston as the Bravo, Mrs. Parker as Theodora, Fitzgerald as the Count, Leigh as Marquis de Ruffia, Sefton as Luigi, Haviland as Maffia, Miss de Silvia as Violetta, and Mrs. Lingard as Muchelema,” p. 45. On July 11, 1859 “The Venetian” was produced with two other plays for the benefit of Miss Carr at the National Theatre, p. 148. “The Venetian” played March 1860 at the New Bowery Theatre, p. 242]


  • Sherman, Robert L., p. 224. [“The Headsman” by James Rees played in NY, 1834, with George Jones a principle player] Literary Gazette and Journal of Belles Lettres, Arts, Sciences, Etc., Review, 889 (Saturday, February 1, 1834), pp. 84-85. [“On Thursday evening the new drama of The Headsman, founded on Cooper’s novel, was produced with complete success (at the Royal Victoria Theatre). To suit the story to the stage, the plot has been much compressed, and the dénouement slighted, but we must add most satisfactory, altered. The Character of Maso il Maladetto was excellently sustained by Abbott. ... Mr. Selby made a complete picture of the Headsman; his appearance in the scarlet robe and black hood — the bare arm sustaining the huge and glittering axe — was perfect ... The scenery was very picturesque ... and the square with the scaffold erected, deserve especial praise.” There is a glowing tribute to the dog whose “first appearance, as the mountain guide to the bewildered travellers, was received with unbounded applause.” From his entrance to his exit, criticism is useless — for which we have not a fault to find”]
  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. III (1821-1834). [“The Headsman” with George Gale as Polder, George P. Farren as Baron Destevau, W. F. Gates as Sloop, Jones as Frederick, and Mrs. Flynn as Bertha was produced at the American Theatre Bowery, March 29, 1834, p. 684]
  • Ireland, Joseph N., Vol. II, p. 92. [noted a March 29, 1834 production of “The Headsman”]
  • Rees, James, pp. 117-118. [Rees, actor/playwright, wrote “The Headsman, a Melodrama in Three Acts,” in 1834. It was the end of the season and ” ... something must be done - you must get up an excitement of some kind; suppose I dramatize Cooper’s Headsman for you (Reinagle) ... “Do it,” says he; and in three days the Headsman ... was in rehearsal.” It played in New Orleans, May 17, 1834; Mr. Scott (of Long Tom Coffin fame) played the Headsman, Mr. Pearson enacted the part of Masso; Hugh Reinagle died six days after on the 23ʳᵈ]
  • Quinn, Arthur Hobson, p. 452. [“The Headsman” by James S. Rees played at the American Theatre in New Orleans, LA on May 17, 1834]
  • Smither, Nelle, p. 340. [“The Headsman” by James Rees played at the American Theatre May 17, 1834]


  • Phillips, Jonas B. “The Pathfinder; or, The Inland Sea,” played at the Bowery Theatre April 1840.
  • Davis, Blanche Elizabeth, p. 43. [“the silent guide of the wilderness ... is the hero ... ” “a stirring dramatization of Cooper’s novel which appeared in 1840.”]


  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. IV (1834-1843). [“The Deerslayer” was revived with T. McCutcheon as Chingachook, William Hield as the Deerslayer, W. F. Gates as Timothy Twintail, Mrs. Kerr-Hunt as Hetty Hutter, Miss Clarke as Wat-a-Wah, and Mrs. Hield as Judith on September 23, 1841 at the Bowery Theatre, p. 548]
  • Quinn, Arthur Hobson, p. 440. [“The Deerslayer” by an anonymous author played at the Bowery Theatre on September 23, 1841]
  • Davis, Blanche Elizabeth, p. 169. [“The Deerslayer” by an anonymous author played in New York City in 1841]
  • Ireland, Joseph N., Vol. II, p. 375. [noted a performance of “The Deerslayer”]


  • Odell, George C. D., Vol. IV (1834-1843), p. 641. [“Wing and Wing”, was offered as one of 23 plays (given in groups of three or four) at the Chatham Theatre between December 16 & 25, 1842]


  • Albion, Review, n. s., Vol. 9, 25 (Saturday, June 22, 1850), p. 296. [“Of the merit of the dialogue, we must speak in high praise: it is at all times smart, neat, and occasionally pointedly telling.” “In this new effort of his stringent and satirical pen, he has chiefly directed his attacks against Fourierism, Socialism, and the lax notions existing among us on the subject of the marriage tie.” The review lists the cast and gives a detailed summary of the plot. The article ends comparing the play to Precaution as a first endeavor and hoping that Cooper will again write in “the field of his new vocation,”]
  • Burton, William Evans., ed., Vol. I, pp. 297-299. [dialogue from the first act of “Upside Down” and an illustration of a scene]
  • Cooper, James Fenimore, ed., Vol. 2, pp. 676-677. [letter to Mrs. Cooper dated May 22, 1850 about “Upside Down” saying that the veteran actor and manager William E. Burton professed “to like it, made very fair suggestions, and accepted it to be played in about ten days.”] ------, Vol. 2, p. 678. [letter to Mrs. Cooper dated May 26, 1850: “Burton has not re-appeared. He took the comedy and vanished. I rather think he is getting ready”]
  • ------, Vol. 2, p. 680. [letter to Mrs. Cooper indicating that Cooper and Burton had spent the day (May 30, 1850) working on the play and that Burton had “curtailed according to his own notions.”]
  • ------, Vol. 2, pp. 681-682. [letter from William E. Burton (June 5, 1850). [“I am inclined to be more liberal to you than to any other author who has yet favored me, as I hope to receive a 5 act comedy from your pen for the next season ... I have employed Mr. C. Bass, a sterling actor, for the part of M’Social ... What shall we call it? ‘Upside Down?’”]
  • ------, Vol. 2, pp. 682-684. [letter from Jas. H. Hackett (who attended the first night of “Upside Down”) dated June 28, 1850 about the performance and the audience response]
  • The Express, Review (June 19, 1850). [“It shows up Socialism beautifully ... There is a scene in which he (Burton as Richard Lovel) is wooed by a she Socialist that is screamingly delectable. The piece is altogether well cast and played. It possesses many tit-bits that bring down the applause in shouts, and its only fault is being upon the whole a little too conventional or closetty, a fault that will be corrected by judicious curtailment tonight, and then the comedy of Upside Down will be right side up.”]
  • Ireland, Joseph N., Vol. II, p. 566. [notes J. Fenimore Cooper’s play “Upside Down” was produced June 18, 1850]
  • The Literary World, “The Drama,” Notice, 177 (June 22, 1850).
  • ------, “The Drama. Mr. Cooper’s New Comedy,” Review, 178 (June 29, 1850), pp. 640-641. The Month at Goodspeed’s Book Shop, XIX, 8 (May, 1948), pp. 247-251. [2 letters signed by Cooper to James H. Hacket: one before and one after the performance of “Upside Down”] Odell, George C. D., Vol. V, p. 532. [lists the cast of the 1850 production of “Upside Down”, at Burton’s Theatre: William E. Burton as Richard Lovell, Mr. Hamilton as George Drewedt, Charles Bass as Dr. McSocial, Mrs. Esther Hughes as Miss McSocial and Mrs. Josephine (Shaw) Russell (“the” leading lady of NY) as Emily. On June 20ᵗʰ “Friend Waggles” played as a second piece]
  • The New York Herald, Notice of a new comedy (June 18, 1850). ------, Notice (June 19, 1850). [silent about the merits of the play; praised Burton’s “incomparable comicality;” and mentioned that the next performance would be enlivened with “several overtures”]
  • (June 21, 1850). [“The new comedy, by Fenimore Cooper, called ‘Upside Down,’ being so successful, and nightly received with cheers, will be repeated this evening.” The management had added to the overtures Miss Hiffert’s “much admired” singing and a new farce “Friend Waggles.” Despite these attempts the play closed on the 21ˢᵗ]

Selected Bibliography

  • Adkins, Nelson F. Fitz-Greene Halleck Early Knickerbocker Wit and Poet. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1930, 141-142, 417-418. [Halleck wrote a song in 1822 beginning, “The harp of love ... ” for Charles P. Clinch’s drama, “The Spy.” “Clinch was a friend of Halleck, and undoubtedly requested the poet to write this lyric as an added distinction for his new drama. The lyric was sung by Miss Johnson in the role of Frances.”]
  • Allen, Paul Hastings. “L’Ultimo dei Moicani [Last of the Mohicans],” Italian vocal score and pianoforte, tragedia lirica in tre atti [lyric tragedy in three acts], 52 pages, by Carlo Zangarini. Milano, Italy and New-York: G. Ricordi & Company, 1916. [music by Paul H. Allen]
  • American Quarterly Review, “American Drama,” 1 (June, 1827), pp. 331-357. [discusses Precaution, Pioneers, and The Spy ; parallels Cooper’s and drama writer’s choosing of subjects and their treatment of them for success; pleaded for a national drama]
  • Ancelot, Jacques-Arsene-Polycarpe-Francois and Mazéres, Edouard-Joseph Ennemond. “L’Espion, Drame en Cinq Actes et en Prose [The Spy, Drama in Five Acts and in Prose],” Paris, 1829.
  • Anicet-Bourgeois, Auguste, “La Vénitienne, drame en cinq actes et en huit tableaux, par M. Anicet-Bourgeois, représenté pour la première fois sur le théâtre de la Porte Saint-Martin, le mardi 18 mars 1834 [The Venetian, drama in five acts and eight scenes by Mr. Anicet-Bourgeois, performed for the first time in the theater of Saint Martin’s Gate Tuesday 18 March 1834]” 32 pages, Paris, France: Marchant, 1834. [Paris: J. N. Barba, 1834, dedicated to Alexandre Dumas] One microopaque (8 x 13 cm.), Louisville, KY, Falls City Microcards. [play based on The Bravo]
  • Les Annales de la Litterature et des Arts, XXXIII, 381-384 (December, 1828). [review of Ancelot’s “L’Espion (The Spy)”]
  • Anonymous. “Miantonimoh; or, The Wept of Wish-Ton-Wish,” 1830. [dramatization] in Jones, Eugene H. Native Americans as Shown on the Stage 1753-1916. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1988, p. 60.
  • Anonymous. “Naramattah; or, The Lost Found,” 1830. [dramatization] in Jones, Eugene H. Native Americans as Shown on the Stage 1753-1916. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1988, p. 70.
  • Anonymous, “Leatherstocking; or, The Last of the Mohicans,” seven pages. New York: Cushing & Bardua, 183? [program and resume, given at Niblo’s Garden]
  • Anonymous. “Miantonimoh,” 1831. [dramatization] in Jones, Eugene H. Native Americans as Shown on the Stage 1753-1916. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1988, p. 60.
  • Anonymous. “Miantonimoh and Naramattah.” 1840. [dramatization] in Jones, Eugene H. Native Americans as Shown on the Stage 1753-1916. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1988, p. 60.
  • Anonymous. “The Last of the Mohicans,” a tragedy in five acts, founded on the novel of that name, by J. F. Cooper, 52 pages. Sheffield, England: John Blurton, 1842.
  • Anonymous. “The Last of the Mohicans: an Indian drama in 4 acts,” 107 pages. Based on the novel of the same title by James Fenimore Cooper, 1849?. Microfiche of manuscript in the New York Public Library. [promptbook]
  • Anonymous. “The Wept of The Wish-Ton-Wish,” 1850. [dramatization] in Jones, Eugene H. Native Americans as Shown on the Stage 1753-1916. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1988, p. 60.
  • Anonymous. “The Wept of Wish-Ton-Wish” A Drama in Two Acts. From J. Fenimore Cooper’s Celebrated Novel of the Same Name. French’s Standard Drama, No. CLIV. New York: Samuel French, n. d. (185?). [26 page promptbook with ms. notes]
  • Arditi, Luigi. “La Spia [The Spy], A Grand Opera in Three Acts,” with libretto founded on Cooper’s great romance by Filippo Manetta, 26 pages. New York: J. Darcie, 1856. [in Italian and English]
  • Baker, H. Barton. History of the London Stage and its Famous Players (1576 1903). New York: Benjamin Blom, 1904, 1969, pp. 420-422.
  • Balzac, Honoré de. Letters à l’étrangère, 1899-1906, 4 vols. Paris, Calmann Levy, 1899. [letter dated November 16, 1843]
  • Barzun, Jacques. Berlioz and the Romantic Century, 2 Vols. New York: Columbia University Press, 1969, Vol. 2, pp. 49-50.
  • Bates, Alfred, ed. American Drama. “The Drama,” London: Athenian Society, 22 Vols., 1903-04, Vols. XIX & XX; New York: Smart and Stanley, 1903, Vol. XIX, pp. 265-298, Historical Publishing Company, two vols. in one, 1909, New York: AMS Press, 2 Vols., 1970. [complete dramatization of unknown author’s The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish]
  • Beard, James Franklin, ed. Letters and Journals of James Fenimore Cooper, 6 Vols., [1800-1851]. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1960-1968, Vol. 6, pp. 163-167, 172-173, 178, 182, 184, 186, 188, 190 191, 192-194, 197-199.
  • Beaumont, Cyril W. “Jean Coralli, ” in Beaumont, C. W. Complete Book of Ballets A Guide to the Principal Ballets of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1938, pp. 113-148.
  • Berger, William. “Paul Jones a Drama in Five Acts,” 89 pages, Philadelphia, PA: T. K. & P. G. Collins, 1839. [translated and adapted from the French of Alexander Dumas’ “Le Capitaine Paul”]
  • Bergquist, G. William. Three Centuries of English and American Plays: A Checklist England: 1500-1800, United States: 1714-1830. New York: Hafner, 1963, p. 216 [Chapman’s “Red Rover”], p. 268 [Wallack’s “Paul Jones”].
  • Bernard, William Bayle. “The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish, adapted to the stage from J. Fenimore Cooper’s celebrated novel of the “Borderers,” 13 pages, Dicks’ Standard Plays, Vol. 546, London: John Dicks, 183-. [first performed at the Adelphi Theatre, November 21ˢᵗ, 1831]
  • ------, “The Wept of the Wish-ton-wish, a drama in two acts from J. Fenimore Cooper’s celebrated novel of the same name,” 26 pages, French’s Standard Drama, the acting edition, Vol. 154, “To which are added, a description of the costume, cast of the characters, entrances and exits, relative positions of the performers on the stage, and the whole of the stage business.” New York: S. French, 1856?. Microopaque. New York: Readex Microprint, 1974. [prompt-book with ms. notes]
  • Booth, Michael R., Southern, Richard, Marker, Frederick & Lise-Lone, & Davies, Robertson. The Revels History of Drama in English, 8 Vols. London: Methuen, 1975, Vol VI 1750-1880, pp. 217-218, 222.
  • Boston Public Library. A Catalog of the Allen A. Brown Collection of Books Relating to the Stage in the Public Library. Boston, MA: The Trustees, 1919.
  • Boynton, Henry Walcott. James Fenimore Cooper. New York: Century, 1931, pp. 126-130, 381-382.
  • Brentano, Joseph P. “The Spy, A Dramatization of J. Fenimore Cooper’s Novel,” 3 acts, Brooten, MN: Catholic Dramatic Company, 1925.
  • Brown, Eluned, ed. The London Theatre 1811-1866 Selections from the Diary of Henry Crabb Robinson. London: The Society for Theatre Research, 1966, pp. 119, 127, 145.
  • Brown, Thomas Allston. A History of the New York Stage From the First Performance in 1732 to 1901, 3 Vols. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1902-1903, Benjamin Blom, 1964.
  • Bryant, William Cullen. The family library of poetry and songs; being choice selections from the best poets, English, Scottish, Irish, and American; including translations from ancient and modern languages/ edited by William Cullen Bryant; with an introducing treatise by the editor on the “Poets and poetry of the English language;” revised and enlarged by the addition of poems and classified poetical quotations; also containing The Biographical Memoir of Bryant, by James Grant Wilson; with indexes, illustrations, and autographic facsimiles. New York: J. B. Ford, 1870, Fords, Howard and Hulbert, 1878, 1880, pp. 626-627. [poem by JFC “My Brigantine” from “The Water Witch”]
  • Burnand, Francis Cowley. “An Entirely New and Original Burlesque, Being the Very Latest Edition of A Nautical Tradition Told by one of the Floating Population to the Marines Who Entitled it ‘The Red Rover’; Or, I Believe You, My Buoy!” London: Aubert’s Steam Printing Works, n. d. [presented at the Strand Theatre on December 26, 1877]
  • Burton, William Evans., ed. “Socialism. A Scene from a Comedy. By J. Fenimore Cooper. 1849,” in Burton, W. E. Cyclopaedia of Wit and Humor: Containing Choice and Characteristic Selections from the Writings of the Most Eminent Humorist of America, Ireland, Scotland, and England, 2 Vols. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1858, Vol. I, pp. 297-299. [dialogue from the first act of “Upside Down” and an illustration of a scene]
  • Carson, William Glasgow Bruce. The Theatre on the Frontier: The Early Years of the St. Louis Stage, 2ⁿᵈ ed. New York: Benjamin Blom, 1965, p. 284. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1932.
  • ------, Managers in Distress, the St. Louis Stage, 1840 1844. St. Louis, MO: St. Louis Historical Documents Foundation, Monograph Series, No. 1, 1949.
  • Caverly, Robert Boodey. “Miantonimoh an Historical Drama, Years 1637 1649,” Boston, MA: R. B. Caverly, 1884. [a closet drama (to be read not played) based on The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish; Jones, E. H., p. 60]
  • Chapman, Samuel Henry. “The Red Rover: a drama in three acts, founded on the popular novel by J. F. Cooper, Esq. as performed at the London theatres,” 52 pages. Philadelphia, PA: F. Turner, 1828? [typewritten copy of the original in Brown University Library, copies in the Widener Library (Harvard) and the Yale Libraries] Microfiche, New Canaan, CT: Readex, 1989]
  • ------, “The Red Rover,” Philadelphia, PA: F. Turner, 1828. University of Chicago Library. [Chapman is listed in the “Dramatis Personae” as “The Rover”]
  • Chicorel, Marietta, ed. Chicorel Theater Index to Plays in Anthologies, Periodical, Discs and Tapes. New York: Chicorel Library Publishing, 1971, p. 371. [“The Spy” by Clinch]
  • ------, Chicorel Theater Index to Plays for Young People in Periodicals, Anthologies, and Collections, 15 Vols. New York: Chicorel Library Publishing, 1974, Vol. 9, p. 383. [“The Spy” adapted by Augusta Stevenson]
  • Clapp, William Warland, Jr. A Record of the Boston Stage. Boston, MA: James Munroe, 1853, New York: B. Blom, 1968, New York: Johnson Reprint Corporation, 1968. [the pages of this book were originally published in The Boston Evening Gazette of which W. W. Clapp, Jr. was editor]
  • Clarence, Reginald, compiler. “The Stage” Cyclopaedia: a bibliography of plays; an alphabetical list of plays and other stage pieces of which any record can be found since the commencement of the English stage; together with descriptions, authors’ names, dates and places of production, and other useful information comprising in all nearly 50,000 plays, and extending over a period of upwards of 500 years, London: “The Stage”, 1909.
  • Clark, Barrett H., ed. America’s Lost Plays, 20 Vols. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1963, 1969.
  • Clinch, Charles Powell. “The Spy, A Tale of Neutral Ground (from the novel of that name),” A Dramatic Romance in Three Acts, 1822. Manuscripts and Archives Division, New York Public Library. [manuscript/promptbook (does not include Halleck’s song written for the play)]
  • ------, “The Spy, a Tale of the Neutral Ground, by C. P. Clinch.” in Page, Eugene Richard, ed, Vol. XIV, Metamora and other Plays, America’s Lost Plays, 20 Vols. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1941.
  • Coad, Oral Sumner, ed. False Shame and Thirty Years, Two Plays by William Dunlap. America’s Lost Plays, Vol. II, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1940, p. xiv. [list of plays by William Dunlap include “A Trip to Niagara; or, Travellers in America” “Acted November 28, 1828; published 1830”]
  • Conner, Wayne. “Balzac et Cooper: ‘Un Sujet Anglais’ [Balzac and Cooper; An English theme or subject],” L’Annee Balzacienne, 1962, pp. 195-196. [A projected dramatic adaptation of Red Rover]
  • Connor, Billie M. and Mochedlover, Helene G. Ottemiller’s Index to Plays in Collections an author and title index to plays appearing in collections published between 1900 and 1985, 7ᵗʰ Ed. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1988, p. 24. [Anonymous, “Wept of the Wish-ton-wish”]
  • Le Constitutionnel (December 8, 1828). [review of Halévy’s “L’Espion (The Spy)”]
  • ------ (December 15, 1828). [review of Ancelot’s “L’Espion (The Spy)”]
  • Cooper, James Fenimore. Gleanings in Europe: France. Edited by Robert E. Spiller, New York: Oxford University Press, 1928, Vol. 1., pp. 50, 51, 252-255.
  • ------, Gleanings in Europe: England. Philadelphia, PA: Carey, Lea, and Blanchard, 1837, Spiller, Robert E., ed. Ibid, New York: Oxford Press, 1930, Vol. 2, “On Stage and Off,” pp. 340-351. [letter to Dr. James E. DeKay from London].
  • ------, Gleanings in Europe: England. Historical introduction and explanatory notes by Donald A. Ringe and Kenneth W. Staggs. Text established by James P. Elliott, Kenneth W. Staggs and R. D. Madison. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1982, pp. 29, 266-268.
  • ------, Gleanings in Europe: France. Historical Introduction and explanatory notes by Thomas Philbrick, Test established by Thomas Philbrick and Constance Ayers Denne, Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1983, pp. 38-39, 182, 184 (English theatre), 181-185 (French theatre).
  • ------, Gleanings in Europe: Italy. Historical introduction and explanatory notes by John Conron and Constance Ayers Denne, Text established by Constance Ayers Denne. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1981, pp. 24-26, 75-76.
  • ------, Notions of the Americans Picked Up by a Travelling Bachelor, 2 Vols. New York: Frederick Ungar, 1963, Vol. II, pp. 112-114, 149.
  • Cooper, J. Fenimore. “Upside Down; or, Philosophy in Petticoats,” played at Burton’s Chambers St. Theatre, NY June 18 - 21, 1850. [script not yet found]
  • Cooper, Susan Fenimore. Pages and Pictures, from the Writing of James Fenimore Cooper with Notes by Susan Fenimore Cooper. NY: James Miller, 1865.
  • ------, Introduction to Cooper, J. F. The Pioneers or The Sources of the Susquehanna A Descriptive Tale. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1898.
  • Cooper, James Fenimore, ed. [Cooper’s grandson]. Correspondence of James Fenimore-Cooper, 2 Vols. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1922, Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press, 1971. Vol. 2, pp. 676-677, 678, 680, 681-682, 682-684.
  • Cumberland’s Minor Theatre with Remarks, Biographical and Critical by D. G. (George Daniel, ed). Printed from the acting copies, as performed at the Metropolitan Minor Theatres. London: John Cumberland, 1828?-1844?, 16 Vols. Vol. 1, p. 5. [Cooper’s “well known tale (The Pilot)” which has the “boldness of character and colouring, that mark an original genius”]
  • Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH. “The Last of the Mohicans”, microform, an Indian drama in 4 acts. Micropaque of manuscript in the New York Public Library, Readex Microprint, 1967, 3 micropaques (23 x 15 cm.). [promptbook]
  • Davidson, George Henry, 1825-1899? [microfiche (negative), 1 sheet, Seattle, University of Washington, 1977]; G. H. Davidson, n.d. [1855?], No. 53 of Cumberland’s Minor Theatre, with Remarks, Biographical and Critical by D. G. (1828-1844), London: John Cumberland, Vol. 1 as performed at the Theatres Royal]. Davis, Blanche Elizabeth. “The Hero in American Drama 1787-1900; A Critical Appraisal of American Dramas through a Consideration of the Hero” New York: Columbia University, 1950, pp. 13, 14, 19, 24, 43, 155, 164, 169, 170, 172. American Doctoral Dissertations, DD W1951, Columbia University, 1951.
  • Diabelli, Anton. “Potpourri in 2 Abtheilungen nach Motiven der Oper Il Bravo [Medley in 2 parts according to motifs from the Opera “El Bravo”],” Wien, Germany: A. Diabelli, 184? [for piano, four hands]
  • Dibdin, Thomas John. “Paul Jones a Melo-dramatic Romance in Three Acts,” London: John Cumberland, Cumberland’s Minor Theatre, 20 Vols., 1828? Vol. 11. [62 pages; as performed at the Metropolitan Minor Theatres; includes untitled song to be sung, printed (without the music) from the acting copy with remarks biographical and critical by George Daniel; “To which are added, a description of the costume, cast of the characters, entrances and exits, relative positions of the performers on the stage, and the whole of the stage business”], Microopaque, New York: Readex Microprint, 1966.
  • ------, “The Wigwam; or, The Red Men of the Wilderness,” a comedy in two acts. Founded on Cooper’s celebrated novel “The Pioneers” and adapted to the stage, by Thomas Dibdin, 15 pages, Dicks’ standard plays No. 570. London: J. Dicks, 1830?. [First performed at The Theatre Royal, Covent Garden, on Monday, April 12ᵗʰ 1830; Readex Microprint, 1975, Courtesy of British Library]
  • John Dicks (Firm). Dick’s Standard Plays a Collection of Plays edited and Produced in the Nineteenth Century, 35 Vols. London: J. Dicks, 1875-1908. [the plays are illustrated and printed from the original text]
  • Disher, Maurice Willson. Blood and Thunder: Mid-Victorian Melodrama and Its Origins. London: Frederick Muller, 1949, New York: Haskell House, 1974, pp. 94, 122, 124-125, 217, 240-241.
  • Dormon, James H. Theater in the Ante Bellum South 1815-1861. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1967, p. 58. [quotes Ludlow’s story of their first stop in Cooperstown; Cooper’s attendance and encouragement]
  • Dramatic Mirror and Literary Companion [edited by James Rees], “The Dramatic Authors of America,” Vol. 1 (Saturday, September 4, 1841), p. 1. [lists Samuel Chapman “The Red Rover” and Charles P. Clinch “The Spy; a tale of the neutral ground”]
  • DuBois, William R. English and American Stage Productions: An Annotated Checklist of Prompt Books 1800-1900. Boston, MA: G. K. Hall, 1973, p. 155. “Paul Jones, A Melo-Dramatic Romance in Three Acts,” 62 pages, London: John Cumberland, n.d. (pp. 131- 132); “The Pilot: A Nautical Burletta, In Three Acts,” 51 pages, London: G. H. Davidson, n.d.
  • Dumas, Alexandre. “Le Capitaine Paul [Captain Paul],” 106 pages, New York: E. P. Williams, 1846. [written in collaboration with Adrien Dauzats; based on James Fenimore Cooper’s “The Pilot;” translated from the French by Thomas Williams]
  • Dunlap, William. Diary of William Dunlap (1766-1839) the Memoirs of a Dramatist, Theatrical Manager, Painter, Critic, Novelist, and Historian, 3 Vols. New York: New York Historical Society, 1823, Benjamin Blom 1930, 1969.
  • ------, History of the American Theatre and Anecdotes of the Principal Actors. New York: J. & J. Harper, 1832; Burt Franklin, 1963. [“Dedicated to James Fenimore Cooper, Esq. by His Friend, The Author.”]
  • ------, Painting: scene from “The Spy” with original cast, produced at the New Park Theater (NY) on March 1, 1822. [owned by Mr. Albert Rosenthal, Philadelphia, PA (Odell, Vol 3, p. 18A); Ehrich Galleries, NYC; and now at the New York State Historical Association, Cooperstown, NY. Durham, Weldon B. American Theatre Companies, 1749-1887. New York: Greenwood Press, 1986, pp. 115, 118, 301, 390.
  • Duviquet. Journal des Débats (December 9, 1828). [review of Halévy’s “L’Espion (The Spy)”]
  • Eddleman, Floyd Eugene. American Drama Criticism Supplement II to the Second Edition. Hamden, CT: The Shoe String Press, 1992, p. 11 [“The Wept of the Wish-Ton-Wish”] and p. 102 [“Last of the Mohicans”].
  • Ellis, James, ed. English Drama of the Nineteenth Century an Index and finding Guide. New Canaan, CT: Readex Books, 1985, pp. 76, 96.
  • Erwin, Mary E. “Cooper’s Novels on the Adelphi Stage, 1825-1835,” Columbia University, 1937. [thesis] [this citation was not located]
  • Etienne, Charles Guillaume, “Arwed, ou, Les représailles: épisode de la guerre d’Amérique drame en deux actes, mêlé de couplets de MM. Etienne, Varin et Desvergers [Arwed, or, the reprisals: an episode of the American war in two acts, mixed rhyming couplets by Messrs. Etienne, Varine and Desvergers],” 72 pages, Bruxelles, Au Bureau du répertoire, 1830. Représenté pour la première fois à Paris, sur le Théâtre du Vaudeville, le 31 mars 1830 [performance for the first time in Paris in the Theater of Light Comedy, the 31ˢᵗ of March 1830; play based on Lionel Lincoln]
  • Evening Journal [Wilmington, DE], “California Tenor to Star in ‘Mohicans’ Premiere at Grand,” 44, No. 109 (June 3, 1976), p. 33. [Peter Van Derick will sing the role of Uncas; Cary Smith, Chingachgook; Linda Roark, Cora; Kristine Comendant, Alice; Robert Benton Col. Munroe; Alan Wagner, Hawkeye; William Austin, Maj. Duncan; Lawrence Cooper, Magua; Emil Markow, Tamenund; production costs exceed $85,000; to be staged at the Grand Opera House June 12, 15, 17, and 19; picture of Peter Van Derick], 44, No. 110 (Friday, June 4, 1976), p. 38. [3
  • ------, “Principals in ‘Mohicans’,” 44, No. 116 (Monday, June 14, 1976), p. 24. [pictures of Emil Markow (Tamenund) and Alan Wagner (Hawkeye), both from West Chester, who portray these characters at the Grand Opera House and on June 26 in Milford, DE] Falk, Armand Elroy. “Theatrical Criticism in the New York Evening Post, 1801 1830,” Michigan State University, 1968. DAI, 29, 10A, p. 3575.
  • Field, Joseph M. “The Wigwam; or Templeton Manor,” Dramatization of The Pioneers, Park Theater, NY, July, 1829-30 season.
  • Fishman, Josephine. “The Dramatization of the Novels of James Fenimore Cooper,” Department of Speech and Drama, Stanford University, 1951. [M. A. thesis: compares subject matter of 6 early novels with the subject matter of the plays adapted from them; appendix records theaters, dates, and casts of performances]
  • Fitzball [Ball], Edward. Dramatization, “The Pilot; or, A Storm at Sea, A Nautical Burletta written by Edward Ball in Three Acts, as Performing with Unanimous Applause at the Adelphi Theatre.” by Edward Ball, 53 pages. London: Simpkin and Marshall, 1825, music by G. H. Rodwell. Microopaque, New York: Readex Microprint, 1965. [Thomas Potter Cooke debuted as Long Tom Coffin turned into a British sailor; Borroughcliffe was made the ridiculous comic lead and action was placed off the American coast; ran 200 nights at the Adelphi Theatre beginning October 21, 1826; ran intermittently from 1830 to 1833]
  • ------, “The Pilot: A Nautical Drama in Three Acts, from J. Fenimore Cooper’s Novel of the Same Name as performed in the various theatres throughout the United States,” 32 pages, New York: Samuel French, 185-? French’s American Drama. The Acting Edition, Vol. 41. [promptbook interleaved with unnumbered pages of manuscript notes, “To which are added, A Description of the Costume - Cast of the Characters - Entrances and Exits - Relative Positions of the Performers on the Stage, and the whole of the Stage Business.”] Microopaque, New York: Readex Microprint, 1967, courtesy of the New York Public Library. [also published under the title: “The Pilot, or, A Storm at Sea”]
  • ------, “The Pilot: A Nautical Burletta, in Three Acts by Edward Fitzball; printed from the acting copy, with remarks, biographical and critical, by D. G,” (George Daniel), 49 pages, London: John Cumberland, 1825? Cumberland’s Minor Theatre , London 1828-1844, Vol. I, No. 1 [“To which are added, a description of the costume, cast of the characters, entrances and exits, relative positions of the performers on the stage, and the whole of the stage business. As performed at the Metropolitan Minor Theaters.” Embellished with a portrait of Mr. T. P. Cooke ... Includes memoir of Mr. T. P. Cooke. Printed cast list for the Adelphi Theatre’s production, 1825. Victoria and Albert Museum’s copy is a promptbook for a production at the Theatre Royal, Birmingham]
  • ------, “The Pilot, A Nautical Burletta in Thee Acts,” British Drama. London: John Dicks, 12 Vols., 1864, Vol. II, pp. 483-496. Readex Microprint, 1981, Courtesy of the British Library.
  • ------, “The Pilot,” Modern Standard Drama. XVI. New York: Samuel French, n.d.
  • ------, “The Red Rover; or The Mutiny of the Dolphin: a Nautical Drama, in Two Acts by Edward Fitz-Ball, Esq; printed from the acting copy, with remarks biographical and critical, by D.-G.” (George Daniel), London: John Cumberland, 46 pages, n. d. ( circa, 1831). “To which are added, a description of the costume, cast of the characters, entrances and exits, relative positions of the performers on the stage, and the whole of the stage business. As performed at the Metropolitan Minor Theatres,” printed cast list for 1828 and 1831 production at the Adelphi Theatre, partial cast for the 1828 production: The Red Rover: Mr. Yates; Lieutenant Wilder: Mr. Hemmings; Fid: T. P. Cooke.” Copy in New York Public Library is George Beck’s promptbook for an unspecified production. Readex Microprint, 1966, courtesy of the New York Public Library.
  • ------, “The Red Rover or, The Mutiny of the Dolphin: A Nautical Drama, in Two Acts,” 46 pages, London: Davidson, n.d.
  • ------, “The Red Rover or, The Mutiny of the Dolphin: A Nautical Drama, in Two Acts,” 15 pages, illustrated, No. 450 Dicks’ Standard Plays, London: J. Dicks, 18 — .
  • ------, “The Red Rover: a Nautical Drama in Two Acts Written expressly for and Adapted only to Green’s Characters and Scenes in the same,” 30 pages, London: B. Pollock, 1946. [a 500 copy reprint of Green’s Juvenile Drama, London: J. K. Green, 1836]
  • Fletcher, Edward Garland. A Title Index to Rees’s Dramatic Authors of America. Austin, TX: University of Texas, 1939. [unable to borrow on Inter-library Loan]
  • Francis, John W. [Cooper’s physician and litterateur]. “Reminiscences of Cooper,” International Magazine, 4 (November 1, 1851), p. 453, also in Putnam, G. P., ed. Memorial of James Fenimore Cooper. New York: G. P. Putnam, 1852, pp. 94-103. [Cooper’s trip with British actor Charles Mathews up the Hudson River, p. 100]
  • French, Samuel. “The Pilot,” by Edward Fitzball, No. XLI in French, S. French’s American Drama. New York: Samuel French, 1850, 1859. [returned the action to the English coast and restored the characters to their original nationalities]
  • Genest, John, ed. Some Account of the English Stage from the Restoration in 1660 to 1830, 10 Vols. Bath, England, 1832; New York: Burt Franklin, 1965, Vol. IX, 84, p. 493-494. [produced “The Pilot, or the Tale of the Sea” at Bath, February 11, 1829. Montague played Long Tom; ... “the Pilot = Stuart:-in the Bath bill this piece is called a new Melo-drama, but it seems to be nothing more than an old piece revived-the Pilot, by Fitzball, as acted at the Adelphi, was printed in 1825-is a tolerable piece in 3 acts.”]
  • Gebbia, Alessandro. La Citta Teatrale lo Spettacolo a Roma Nelle Impressioni dei Viaggiatori Americani 1760-1870 [American Travelers in Rome (1760 1870) and What They Wrote on the “theatrical exhibitions”]. Rome, Italy: Officina Edizioni, 1985.
  • Le Globe, VI (December 10, 1828), pp. 887-888. [review of Halévy’s “L’Espion;” contrasts Cooper’s Harvey Birch with the bombastic character from the Odéon production]
  • Glover, Steven E. “The Cradle of Liberty, or, Boston in 1775 written and adapted by Stephen E. Glover,” A Drama in Four Acts, 39 pages, Modern Standard Drama, XXXVIII. New York: Samuel French, 18 — .
  • ------. “The Cradle of Liberty, or, Boston in 1775 written and adapted by Capt. Stephen E,. Glover, from J. Fenimore Cooper’s celebrated Novel of “Lionel Lincoln; or The Leaguer of Boston” with original casts, costumes, and the whole of the stage business, correctly marked and arranged, by Mr. J. B. Wright, assistant manager of The Boston Theatre,” 39 pages, Boston, MA: William V. Spencer [Spencer’s Boston Theatre, No. CXLV], 1857? Nicoll, Allardyce and Freedley, George, eds. English and American Drama of the Nineteenth Century, [American Drama 1801-1900], Microcard.
  • ------. “The Last of the Mohicans an Indian Dama In Four Acts.” 107 leaves. 1849? Manuscript Division, New York Public Library. [unpublished manuscript promptbook]
  • Gordon, John D. “The Red Rover Takes the Boards,” American Literature, Vol. X (March, 1938), pp. 66-75.
  • Grimsted, David. Melodrama Unveiled, American Theater and Culture 1800 1850. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1968, passim.
  • Grossman, James. James Fenimore Cooper. New York: William Sloane, 1949, pp. 244-245. [“Upside Down”]
  • Hackett, Walter Anthony, adapter. “The Spy,” [1 act play]. Plays, 9 (March, 1950), pp. 83-95 also in Hackett, W. A. Radio Plays for Young People; Fifteen Great Stories Adapted for Royalty-free Performance. Boston. MA: Plays. Inc., 1950, pp. 143-164.
  • Halévy, Leon, Fontan, L. M., and Drouineau, G. “L’Espion, Drame en Cinq Actes et en Prose [The Spy, Drama in Five Acts and in Prose],” Paris, 1828. [microfilm copy at U. of Tennessee library]
  • Hall, Lillian Arvilla. Catalogue of Dramatic Portraits in the Theatre Collection of the Harvard University Library, 4 Vols. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1930. [No. 15: Thomas Potter Cooke as Dick Fid in “The Red Rover”; W. L., standing, legs apart, looking to left, right arm upraised, club in left hand. Publisher O. Hodgson. No. 76. New Series. Vol. I, p. 285]
  • ------, Ibid., Vol. I, p. 286. [No. 30: Thomas Potter Cooke as Long Tom Coffin in “The Pilot”; W. L., to left, standing, looking to right, hat in upraised right hand, cloak over left shoulder, basket upset by right foot; vignette. Publisher Jno. Cumberland, 1828. No. 31: T. P. Cooke as Long Tom Coffin; W. L., to left, standing , legs apart, looking to right, gun in right hand, spear in upraised left hand. Publisher O. Hodgson, 1832. No. 99. No. 32: T. P. Cooke as Long Tom Coffin; W. L., to front, standing, legs apart, looking to left, holding a gun in each hand, right arm upraised; vignette. Publisher W. West, 1825. No. 83]
  • ------, Ibid., Vol. II, p. 310. [a colored print of “Mr. Johnson as the Red Rover from Sadler’s Wells Theatre”]
  • Halleck, Fitz-Greene. Fanny with Other Poems. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1839. [“The Harp of Love” written for the drama “The Spy”]
  • ------. The Poetical Works of Fitz-Greene Halleck. New York: D. Appleton, 1847, pp. 255-256. [“Song for the Drama of “The Spy” composed for Charles P. Clinch’s 1822 drama “The Spy”]
  • Haslinger, Carl. “Fantaisie ou potpourri sur des thêmes favoris de l’opéra Il Bravo [Fantasy or Medley on the Favorite Themes of the Opera The Bravo],” Musique de Mercandante, 14 pages, op. 21, no. 18, Vienne: Tobie Haslinnger, 1840. [piano]
  • Hatch, James V. Black Image on the American Stage a Bibliography of Plays and Musicals 1770-1970. New York: Drama Book Specialists, 1970, p. 4. [“The Spy”]
  • Henderson, Alva. “The Last of the Mohicans,” an Opera in Three Acts, music by Alva Henderson; based on the novel by James Fenimore Cooper; libretto by Janet Lewis; dramatic concept by Robert E. Darling, 1976. [Commissioned by the Wilmington Opera Society to celebrate the American Bicentennial 1976, and the gala reopening of The Grand Opera House, Wilmington, Delaware, June 12, 15, 17, 19, 1976]
  • Herron, Ima Honaker. The Small Town in American Drama. Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist University Press, 1969, pp. 36, 52, 54, 56, 58, 117.
  • Hill, Frank Pierce. American Plays Printed 1714-1830 A Bibliographical Record. New York: Burt Franklin, 1934, 1970, p. 15 [“Red Rover”], p. 109 [“Paul Jones”].
  • Hill, West Thompson, Jr. The Theatre in Early Kentucky 1790-1820. Lexington, KY: The University Press of Kentucky, 1971.
  • Hirsch, Steve. “Cooper Novel Gets New Life in Opera Version,” Kite, Review (August 17, 1977), p. 8. [picture of Magna threaten Cora; Henderson’s “Last of the Mohicans” performed by the Lake George Opera Company, NY with Sigmund Cowan as Magua; Barbara Hochen, Cora; Maryanne Telese, Alice; John Sandor, Col. Munroe; Ron Hedlund, Hawkeye; Harlan Foss, Chingachgook; Evan Bortnick, Uncas; Janet Lewis, Librettist; and Patrick Bakman, Director. “The problem, by the way, does not rest solely with the libretto; the music does not help much to define the characters either.”]
  • Hixon, Don L. and Hennessee, Don A. Nineteenth-Century American Drama: A Finding Guide. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1977, pp. 159, 224, 387, 433, 479.
  • Hodge, Francis. Yankee Theatre The Image of America on the Stage, 1825 1850. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1964, pp. 34, 36, 37, 43, 44, 66, 130.
  • Hoole, William Stanley. The Ante-bellum Charleston Theatre. University of Alabama: University of Alabama Press, 1964, pp. 88, 89, 90, 97, 123, 124, 149, 150.
  • Hovland, Michael, compiler. Musical Settings of American Poetry A Bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1986, p. 33. [“My Brigantine”]
  • Hughes, Glenn. A History of The American Theatre 1700-1950. New York: Samuel French, 1951, p. 110. [“The Pilot”]
  • The Illustrated London News, “Sketches of Stage Favourites. Mr. T. P. Cooke,” XXIII, 649 (Saturday October 15, 1853), p. 319. [T. P. Cooke played his second longest sustained character, Long Tom Coffin, 562 times in “The Pilot.” He appeared 120 times in “The Red Rover” as of his present engagement at the Standard Theatre; Cooke lived until April 1864 and last performed on stage in 1860, hence he most likely played these roles more often]
  • Ireland, Joseph Norton. Records of the New York Stage from 1750 to 1860. 2 Vols. New York: T. H. Morrell, 1867, Burt Franklin, 1968.
  • James Fenimore Cooper Society Newsletter, “A Cooper Musical,” V, 3 (December 1994), p. 1. [“Glimmerglass” a new musical work in preparation: book by Jonathan Bolt, Music by Douglas J. Cohen, Lyrics by Ted Drachman; set in 1809 with flashbacks; plot combines elements and characters from The Pioneers, The Pathfinder, and The Deerslayer]
  • Jones, Eugene H. Native Americans as Shown on the Stage 1753-1916. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1988, pp. 47, 69, 70-74, 109. [Indians in plays written from Cooper’s books]
  • ------, Ibid., p. 109. [Thomas Blaides DeWalden wrote a play: “The Life and Death of Natty Bumppo,” in 1873; used all five book of the Leatherstocking series]
  • ------, Ibid., p. 109. [George Fawcett Rowe wrote a play: “Leatherstocking; or, The Last of the Mohicans” in 1874]
  • Quinn, Arthur Hobson, p. 430. [Joseph Stevens Jones’s. “Battle of Lake Erie,” played at the Tremont Theatre, Boston, MA, October 31, 1842; probably not based on Cooper’s book]
  • James, Reese Davis. Old Drury of Philadelphia A History of the Philadelphia Stage 1800-1835. Including the Diary or Daily Account Book of William Burke Wood, Co-Manager with William Warren of the Chestnut Street Theatre, familiarly known as Old Drury. Reprinted New York: Greenwood Press, 1968 with permission of the University of Pennsylvania Press (1932). [includes: dates, play titles, and day’s receipts of the Chesnut Street Company in Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, and Alexandria]
  • Journal des Débats (December 15, 1828). [review of Ancelot’s “L’Espion (The Spy)”]
  • Kaiser, Joseph J. “Uncas (The Last of the Mohicans),” Characteristic, march, two-step, 5 pages piano music,  New York: Joseph J. Kaiser Music Publishing Company, 1904.
  • Keese, William L. William E. Burton, Actor, Author and Manager. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1885.
  • Keller, Dean H. Index to Plays in Periodicals, Revised and expanded edition. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1979.
  • Kendall, John S. The Golden Age of the New Orleans Theater. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1952, New York: Greenwood Press, 1968, p. 61 (Cradle), pp. 124, 306, 511 (Wept), and pp. 156, 171, 193, 234 (Paul Jones).
  • Kouwenhoven, John Atlee. “Cooper’s ‘Upside Down’ Turns Up,” The Colophon; a Quarterly for Booklovers, III, 4 (Autumn, 1938), pp. 524-530.
  • Leuchs, Fritz A. H. The Early German Theatre in New York 1840-1872. New York: Columbia University Press, 1928, pp. 62, 98, 215.
  • Lockhart, John G. Memoirs of the Life of Sir Walter Scott, 5 Vols. Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin, 1901, Vol. V, p. 10.
  • Lounsbury, Thomas Raynesford. James Fenimore Cooper. Boston, MA: Houghton, Mifflin, 1882, p. 263, Detroit, MI: Gale Research, 1968.
  • Macdonald, Hugh. Berlioz. London: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1982, p. 130. [Le Corsaire]
  • MacDougall, Hugh Cooke, Compiler. “`Upside Down; or, Philosophy in Petticoats’ A Scene from Cooper’s Only Play,” Cooperstown, NY: James Fenimore Cooper Society Miscellaneous Papers, No. 1, January, 1992.
  • ------, Compiler. “Where Was James? A James Fenimore Cooper Chronology from 1889 to 1851,” James Fenimore Cooper Society Miscellaneous Papers, No. 3, Cooperstown, NY: James Fenimore Cooper Society, 1993.
  • Ludlow, Noah Miller. Dramatic Life As I Found It. St. Louis, MO, 1880, New York: Benjamin Blom, 1966.
  • McBride, John D. America in the French Mind During the Burbon Restoration (1814 - 1830). Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms, 1955. pp. 193-199.
  • ------, “Cooper’s The Spy on the French Stage,” University of Tennessee Studies in the Humanities, Tennessee Studies in Literature, 1 (1956), pp. 35-42.
  • Magnin, Charles. Review, Le Globe, VI, 903 (December 17, 1828). [Ancelot’s “L’Espion (The Spy)”]
  • Marliani, Marco Aurelio. “Le Bravo: opera Italien en trois actes, paroles de Mr. Berrettoni [The Bravo; Italian Opera in three acts, words by...],” Paris: Pacini, 1834? [one vocal score, 202 pages]
  • ------, “Songs, Duets, Choruses, &c. in The Red Mask: or, The Council of Three, A Grand Operatic Drama, in Three Acts. London: J. Miller, 1834? first performed at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, on Saturday, November 15, 1834; music by Marliani; adapted to the English stage by Thomas Cooke]
  • ------, “Il Bravo: opera in tre atti,” Libretto by A. Berrettoni. Milano, Italy: G. Ricordi, 1836. [vocal scores with piano, 203 pages]
  • Matthews, Brander J. “The American on the Stage,” Scribner’s Monthly, XVIII, 3 (July, 1879), pp. 321-333. [” ... as soon as the century got out of its teens the American novelist caught up with his British predecessor, and became as great a favorite as he (Scott) with play-makers and play-goers.”]
  • ------, A Book About the Theater. New York: Charles Scribnet’s Sons, 1916.
  • “The Dramatization of Novels,” in Matthews, B. Books and Play Books; Essays on Literature and Drama. London: Osgood, McIlvaine, 1895, Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press [Essay Index Reprint Series], 1972, pp. 32-63 also in Matthews, B. Studies of the Stage. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1894, pp. 1-38.
  • Mayorga, Margaret Gardner. A Short History of The American Drama, Commentaries on Plays Prior to 1920. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1932, 1934, pp. 75, 91, 144, 345, 347.
  • Mercadante, Saverio. “Il Bravo”, vocal score, 342 pages, libretto by Gaetano Rossi et. al; music by Saverio Mercadante, New York: Garland Publishing, 1989. [reprint of the 1ˢᵗ ed., Milan, Italy: G. Ricordi, 1839; introduction by Philip Gossett]
  • ------, “Il Bravo: Melodramma in tre atti,” ridotta per piano-forte solo, piano score, 458 pages, Milano: G. Ricordi, 1839?
  • ------, “Il Bravo: melodramma in tre atti,” vocal score, 281 pages, libretto by G. Rossi and Marco Marcello, Milano, Italy: Ricordi, 1888?, 1900, 1960.
  • ------, “A te, mio suolo ligure [To My Land of Ligurea (a province in Italy)],” vocal score, five pages, Milano, Italy: Ricordi, 186? [for voice and piano from Il Bravo]
  • ------, “All’ et`adell’ innocenza [To the Innocence of Adell],” sheet music, five pages, Napoli, Italy: B. Girard e Ci, after 1839? [from Il Bravo]
  • Le Mercure du Dix-Neuvieme Siecle, XXIII (1828), pp. 524-525. [review of Halévy’s “L’Espion (The Spy)”]
  • ------, XXIII (1828), pp. 574-576. [review of Ancelot’s “L’Espion”]
  • Meserve, Walter J. An Emerging Entertainment The Drama of the American People to 1828. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1977, passim.
  • ------, Heralds of Promise The Drama of the American People During the Age of Jackson. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1986, passim.
  • Montgomery, W. J. “The Spy [St. Louis, MO, December, 1902],” microform. Library of Congress Photoduplication Service, Washington, D.C., microfilm reel #65, 35 mm, 1976. [4 act dramatization]
  • ------. The Month at Goodspeed’s Book Shop, 40 Vols. Boston, MA: Goodspeed’s Book Shop. 1930-1969, “Exit, Pursued by a Turkey,” XIX, 8 (May, 1948), pp. 247-251.
  • Moody, Richard. America Takes the Stage Romanticism in American Drama and Theatre, 1750-1900. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1955, New York: Kraus Reprint Co., 1969, pp. 9-10, 14, 16, 24, 65, 82, 104, 109, 144, 147, 173, 236.
  • Morgan, Winifred. An American Icon Brother Jonathan and American Identity. Newark, NJ: University of Delaware Press, 1988, p. 168. [the plot of Thomas Dibdin’s “Banks of the Hudson, or the Congress Trooper” has minor parallels with “The Spy”]
  • Moses, Montrose Jonas. “American Plays of Our Forefathers,” The North American Review, CCXV, 799 (June, 1922), pp. 790-804.
  • National Gazette [Philadelphia], Review (February 26, 1828). [unable to get this citation on ILL] The New York Evening Post, “The Harp of Love” (June 25, 1831). [Halleck’s poem written for Clinch’s play “The Spy”]
  • Nicoll, Allardyce. A History of Early Nineteenth Century Drama: 1800 -1850. Vol. IV of Nicoll, A. A History of English Drama, 1600-1900, 6 Vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1923-1959. Late Nineteenth Century Drama 1850-1900. Vol. V of Nocoll, A. A History of English Drama 1660-1900, 6 Vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1962.
  • Odell, George Clinton Densmore. Annals of the New York Stage, 15 Vols. New York: Columbia University Press, 1927-1949.
  • ------, Vol. I (to 1798), p. 105-106. [Cooper errs in placing a play C. Littlepage and Anneke attended in 1757 because the theater wasn’t opened until December, 1758]
  • ------, Vol. IX, pp. 565-566. [C. W. Barry’s “The Spy” or, America One Hundred Years Hence,” New York, 1875 opened July 26, 1875 at Wood’s Museum and ran for three weeks].
  • Pagel, Carol Anne Ryan. “A History and Analysis of Representative American Dramatizations from American Novels 1800-1860,” University of Denver, 1970. DAI, 31, 10A, 5568. [Chapter 4 includes a comparison of novel and scenes of the play through detailed analysis of plot, subplots, pace, themes, and characters for Clinch’s “The Spy” and Chapter 5 analyses and compares Chapman’s “The Red Rover”]
  • Parnell, M. H. All Hands Unmoor! Boston, MA: C. Bradlee, n.d. [a musical setting for the song the Rover sings in Chapter XXIII]
  • Partridge, Eric. Fenimore Cooper’s Influence on the French Romantics,” Modern Language Review, 20 (April, 1925), pp. 174-178.
  • Phillips, J. B. “The Pathfinder; or, The Inland Sea,” 72 page MS. Harvard University Library.
  • Phillips, Mary. James Fenimore Cooper. New York: John Lane, 1913, pp. 320 322. [an account of the trip up the Hudson River with English actor Charles Mathews, William Dunlap, Dr. Francis]
  • Powell, Thomas. “James Fenimore Cooper,” in Powell, T. The Living Authors of America. New York: Stringer and Townsend, 1850, pp. 25-27.
  • Quinn, Arthur Hobson. A History of the American Drama from the Beginning to the Civil War. New York: F. S. Crofts, passim.
  • ------, “A List of American Plays 1665-1860,” in Quinn, A. H. A History of the American Drama from the Beginning to the Civil War, 2ⁿᵈ ed. New York: F. S. Crofts, 1943, pp. 425-497. [lists the following plays with titles of Cooper’s works: Battle of Lake Erie (?); The Bravo/The Venetian; The Cradle of Liberty, or, Boston in 1775; Rake Hellies (Lionel Lincoln); The Deerslayer; The Headsman; Last of the Mohicans; Miantonimoh (Wept-of-Wish-Ton-Wish); The Pilot; the Pioneers; The Red Rover; The Spy; The Water Witch]
  • La Quotidienne (December 8, 1828). [review of Halévy’s “L’Espion (The Spy)”]
  • Rees, James. The Dramatic Authors of America. Philadelphia, PA: G. B. Zieber, 1845, pp. 37-39, 115-118, 131, 138.
  • Rodwell, George Herbert Buonaparte. “My Brigantine! The Words from Cooper’s novel The Water Witch,” sheet music, three pages, New York: E. S. Mesier, c.1830. [the words are from Chapter IV of The Water Witch; the words are also printed in W. C. Bryant’s Family Library of Poetry and Song]
  • Romand, Hippolyte. “Le bourgeois de Gand ou, Le secrétaire du Duc d’Albe; drame en cing actes et en prose [The Master of Gand or, the Secretary of the Duke d’Albe; drama in five acts and in prose]” Répresenté a Paris, sur le Théâtre Royal de l’Odéon, le 21 mai 1838 [performance in Paris in the Royal Theater of l’Odéon, the 21 of May 1838] 140 pages, Paris, France: J. N. Barba, 1838. [play based on The Spy]
  • Rourke, Constance. American Humor: A Study of the National Character. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1931, pp. 98, 160, New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1931, pp. 114, 115, 200. [stage humor]
  • St. Clair, Robert “The Deerslayer: James Fenimore Cooper’s Illustrious story of Glorious Adverture, Frontier Dangers and Pioneer Bravery,” in three acts, New York: Samuel French, 1937.
  • Saar, Louis Victor. “My Brigantine,” [words credited to James Fenimore Cooper] in Tomlins, William L. The Laurel Song Book. Boston, MA: C. V. Birchard, 1901, 1915, pp. 20-21. [the words are the same as in Bryant’s Family Library of Poetry and Song]
  • Salvayre, Gervais. “Le Bravo: opera en quatre actes,” paroles de Emile Blavet, partition piano seul reduite par l’auteur [The Bravo: An Opera in Four Acts, words by E. B. piano and vocal score condensed by the author], 273 pages, Paris: Henry Lemoine, 1877? [first performance: Theâtre de l’Opera National Lyrique, Paris, April 18, 1877]
  • Samples, Gordon. The Drama Scholars’ Index to Plays and Filmscripts: A Guide to Plays and Filmscripts in Selected Anthologies, Series and Periodicals. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1974, p. 100 [“Paul Jones”], p. 129 [“The Pilot”].
  • Saturday Evening Post, “The Rover’s Last Hour,” VII, 343 (February 23, 1828), p. 1. [a 32 line poem signed “SELIM”]
  • Schoberlin, Melvin. From Candles to Footlights A Biography of the Pike Theatre 1859-1876. Denver, CO: Old West Publishing, 1941, p. 132.
  • Sears, Minnie Earl. Song Index An Index to More Than 12000 Songs In 177 Song Collections. Shoe String Press, 1966, p. 374. [L. V. Saar’s “My Brigantine”].
  • Sharp, Harold S. and Sharp, Marjorie Z., compilers. Index to Characters in the Performing Arts. Part III, Ballets. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1972, p. 290.
  • Sherman, Robert Lowery. Drama Cyclopedia A Bibliography of Plays and Players. Chicago, IL: by the author, 1944.
  • ------. Chicago Stage, Its Records and Achievements, Vol. 1 1834 - 1871. Chicago, IL: n. p., 1947.
  • Smith, Horace W. The Miscellaneous Works of the Late Richard Penn Smith Collected by his son, Horace W. Smith. Philadelphia, H. W. Smith, 1856, pp. 65-68. [prologue to the “Red Rover”]
  • Smith, Irvine N. “American Plays and Playwrights of the Nineteenth Century,” University of Denver, 1959. [dissertation]
  • Smith, Richard Penn. “The Bravo,” one act MS in Historical Society of Pennsylvania revised and produced as “The Venetian.”
  • ------. “The Venetian,” played at the Arch Street Theatre, Philadelphia, PA March 24, 1849. [holograph MS dated 1836, Harvard University]
  • Smith, Sydney. Review, Seybert, Adam. Statistical Annals of the United States of America, Edinburgh Review, XXXIII (January, 1820), pp. 69-80.
  • Smither, Nellie Kroger. A History of the English Theatre in New Orleans. New York: Benjamin Bloom, 1944, 1967.
  • ------. “A History of the English Theatre at New Orleans, 1806 1842,” The Louisiana Historical Quarterly, Vol. 28, No. 1 (January, 1945), p. 171.
  • Soulie, J. B. A. La Quotidienne (December 15, 1828). [review of Ancelot’s adaptation of The Spy]
  • Specimens of Show Printing being Fac-similes in Minature of Poster Cuts Comprising Colored and Plain Designs. Philadelphia, PA: The Ledger Job Office, 1869-1872, San Bernardino, CA: Borgo Press, 1987, Hollywood, CA: Cherokee Books, 19??, p. 501. [Cut No. 1003 - Red Rover - 1 sheet. Black, $3 per 100; this book was originally a 300 page bound volume (9”x12”) distributed to theater managers of the 1860’s and 1870’s so they could order posters to advertise plays in their repertoire]
  • Spiller, Robert E. Fenimore Cooper Critic of His Times. New York: Russell & Russell, 1963, p. 298. [“Upside Down; or, Philosophy in Petticoats”]
  • ------. “The Verdict of Sidney Smith,” American Literature A Journal of Literary History, Criticism, and Bibliography, I, 1 (March, 1929), pp. 3-13. [Rev. Smith was Canon of St. Paul’s Cathedral and founder of the Edinburgh Review ; hence, his opinions had wide dissemination and great influence]
  • Spiller, Robert E. and Blackburn, Philip C. A Descriptive Bibliography of the Writings of James Fenimore Cooper. New York: Burt Franklin, 1903, 1968, p. 209. [“Upside Down”].
  • ------. “Dramatizations of Cooper’s Stories by Others,” Ibid, pp. 211-212.
  • Stevenson, Augusta. “The Spy,” in Stevenson, A. The White Canoe and Other Plays. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1938.
  • Stewart, J. C. [John Stewart Crossy] “The Last of the Mohicans, An Ethiopian Sketch ... as first produced at the Théâtre Commique, New York, May, 1870. “To which are added, a description of the costume, cast of the characters, entrances and exits, relative positions of the performers on the stage, and the whole of the stage business.” New York: Robert M. DeWitt, six pages, 187? Microopaque. New York: Readex Microprint, 1968.
  • Straker, D. “The Pilot, or A Storm at Sea,” 24 pages, Juvenile Dramatic Repository, January 14, 1828, London: D. Straker, 1828. Microfilm, Ohio State University, 1960? [an adaptation of Fitzball’s play for juvenile theater contained stage-sets and cut-outs of characters for home production of the play; original held by the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, England]
  • Tomkins, William Lawrence. Laurel Songbook. Boston, MA: C. V. Birchard, 1901, 1915, pp. 20-21. [sheet music for “My Brigantine” by Louis V. Saar]
  • Tompkins, Eugene and Kilby, Quincy. The History of the Boston Theatre 1854- 1901. New York: Benjamin Blom, 1908, 1969.
  • Towers, John. Dictionary-Catalogue of Operas and Operettas, 2 vols. Morgantown, WV: Acme Publishing, New York: Da Capo Press, 1967, Vol. 1, pp. 104, 371, 490, 503, 599.
  • University of Missouri, Columbia, MO. “The Spy”, microfilm (71 pages), a dramatization in four acts by W. J. Montgomery, St. Louis, MO, December, 1902. Library of Congress, Washington, D. C., Photoduplication Service, part of 1 microfilm reel, No. 65, 35 mm., 1976.
  • Urich, Jean. “Le Pilote: opéra in 3 actes and 4 tableaux/ paroles de Armand Silvestre [The Pilot: Opera in 3 Acts and 4 Scenes/ words by ... ],” 256 pages, London: J. R. Lafleur, 189? [vocal score in French with piano].
  • ------, Ibid. ” ... paroles de Armand Silvestre and A. Gandrey,” 262 pages, Paris: P. Dupont, 1890? [vocal score in French with piano]
  • Walker, Jeffrey. New Letters of James Fenimore Cooper. [work in progress]
  • Wallack, W. H(enry). “Paul Jones or, The Pilot of the German Ocean, A Melodrama in three acts,” 52 pages, New York: Elton’s Dramatic Repository and Print Store, 1828.
  • Waples, Dorothy. The Whig Myth of James Fenimore Cooper. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1938; Hamden CT: Archon Books, Yale Studies in English, Vol. 88, 1968, pp. 63-64.
  • Ware, Ralph H. and Schoenberger, H. W., eds. The Sentinels & Other Plays by Richard Penn Smith, Vol. XIII, America’s Lost Plays, 20 Vols. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1965.
  • Weaver, R. T. “The Red Rover; or, The Mutiny of the Caroline. A nautical burletta in three acts. The only edition correctly marked from the prompter’s book, with the stage business, situations, and directions. As performed at the London theatres,” 48 pages, London: J. Duncombe, 1829. [Vol. 4, No. 25, Duncombe’s Acting Edition of the British Theatre],
  • Wegelin, Oscar. Early American Plays, 1714-1830; a compilation of the titles of plays and dramatic poems written by authors born in or residing in North America previous to 1830. New York: The Dunlap Society, 1900, Rev. ed., 1905, Literary Collector Press, Johnson Reprint Corporation, 1968.
  • Wells, Henry W., ed. Three Centuries of Drama; American (1714-1830). New York: Readex Microprints, 1953 -. [26 boxes of cards]
  • Wemyss, Francis Courtney. Twenty-six Years of the Life of An Actor and Manager Interspersed with Sketches, Anecdotes, and Opinions of the Professional Merits of the Most Celebrated Actors and Actresses of our Day, 2 Vols. New York: Burgess, Stringer, 1847. see if we have this Vol. 1, pp. 149 150.
  • ------. Theatrical Biography: or, The Life of an Actor and Manager. Interspersed with Sketches, Anecdotes, and Opinions of the Professional Merits of the Most Celebrated Actors and Actresses of our Day. Glasgow: R. Griffin, 1848, pp. 129-132. [same as his book above]
  • Wilson, Arthur Herman. A History of the Philadelphia Theatre 1835 to 1855. Reprinted New York: Greenwood Press, 1968 with permission of the University of Pennsylvania Press (1935), pp. 192, 465, 563, 632, 661, 664.
  • Wilson, James Grant. The Life and Letters of Fitz-Greene Halleck. New York: Appleton, 1869, p. 282. [Cooper sat beside Halleck at the 1ˢᵗ performance of Italian Opera in NY: Il Barbiere de Seviglia (The Barber of Seville) on October 29, 1825; Adkins indicates that they sat side by side on November 29, 1825 at the Park Theatre, p. 150. Odell writes that the first Italian Opera in NY played at the Park Theatre on November 29, 1825. In 1819, Rossini’s opera was first produced in NY in English 3 years after its premiere in Rome. The 1825 performance was in Italian]
  • Wittmer, George B. “James Fenimore Cooper, “M*A*S*H,” and the Origins of TV Drama, “Teaching English in the Two Year College, 14 (May, 1987), pp. 93 97. [recounts the accidental discovery of a long forgotten drama “Mingos and Soldiers at Fort Henry” by Cooper that has many similarities to a “M*A*S*H” program; none of the citations from this article have been located]
  • Woodworth, Samuel. “The Hunters of Kentucky,” in Lloyd, Ruth and Norman. The American Heritage Songbook. NewYork: American Heritage Publishing, 1969, pp. 34-35; also in Sandburg, Carl. The American Songbag. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1927, pp. 427-429.
  • Wright, Nathalia. “The Chanting Cherubs: Horatio Greenough’s Marble Group for James Fenimore Cooper,” New York History, XXXVIII (April, 1957), pp. 177 197. [the first group ever designed and executed by an American sculptor, 1829].
  • ------. “Glorious Fenimore,” in Wright, N. Horatio Greenough; First American Sculptor. Philadelphia, PA: Pennsylvania Press, 1963, pp. 66-75, 319-321.