“What, shall this speech be spoke for our excuse?
Or shall we on without apology.
Romeo and Juliet.
The fine estuary which penetrates the American coast, between the fortieth and forty-first degrees of latitude, is formed by the confluence of the Hudson, the Hackensack, the Passaic, the Rariton, and a multitude of smaller streams; all of which pour their tribute into the ocean, within the space named. The islands of Nassau and Staten are happily placed to exclude the tempests of the open sea, while the deep and broad arms of the latter offer every desirable facility for foreign trade and internal intercourse. To this fortunate disposition of land and water, with a temperate climate, a central position and an immense interior, that is now penetrated in every direction, either by artificial natural streams, the city of New York is indebted for its extraordinary prosperity. Though not wanting in beauty, there are many bays that surpass this in the charms of scenery, but it may be questioned if the world possesses another site, that unites so many natural advantages for the growth and support of a widely extended commerce. As if never wearied with her kindness, Nature has placed the island of Manhattan at the precise point that is most desirable for the position of a town. Millions might inhabit the spot, and yet a ship should load near every door, and while the surface of the land just possesses the inequalities that are required for health and cleanliness, its bosom is filled with the material most needed in construction.
The consequences of so unusual a concurrence of favorable circumstance are well known. A vigorous, healthful and continued growth, that has no parallel even in the history of this extraordinary and fortunate country, has already raised the insignificant provincial town, of the last century, to the level of the second rate cities of the other hemisphere. The New-Amsterdam of this continent already rivals its parent of the other, and, so far as human powers may pretend to predict, a few fleeting years will place her on a level with the proudest capitals of Europe.
It would seem that, as Nature has given its periods to the stages of animal life, it has also set limits to all moral and political ascendancy. While the city of the Medici is receding from its crumbling walls, like the human form shrinking into “the lean and slippered pantaloon”, the queen of the Adriatic sleeping on her muddy isles, and Rome itself is only to be traced by fallen temples and buried columns, the youthful vigour of America is fast covering the wilds of the West, with the happiest fruits of human industry.
By the Manhattanese, who is familiar with the forest of masts, the miles of wharves, the countless villas, the hundred churches, the castles, the smoking and busy vessels that crowd his bay, the daily increase and the general movement of his native town, the picture we are about to sketch will scarcely be recognized. He who shall come a generation later will probably smile, that subject of admiration should have been found in the existing condition of the city: And yet we shall attempt to carry the recollections of the reader but a century back, in the brief history of his country.
As the sun rose on the morning of the 3d of June, 171-, the report of a cannon was heard rolling along the waters of the Hudson. Smoke issued from an embrasure of a small fortress, that stood on the point of land where the river and the bay mingle their waters. The explosion was followed by the appearance of a flag which, as it rose to the summit of its staff and unfolded itself heavily in the light current of air, shewed the blue field and red cross of the English ensign. At the distance of several miles, the dark masts of a ship were to be seen, faintly relieved by the verdant back ground of the heights of Staten Island. A little cloud floated over this object, and then an answering signal came dull and rumbling to the town. The flag that the cruiser set was not visible, in the distance.
At the precise moment that the noise of the first gun was heard, the door of one of the principal dwellings of the town opened, and a man, who might have been its master, appeared on its stoop, as the ill arranged entrances of the buildings of the place are still termed. He was seemingly prepared for some expedition that was likely to consume the day. A black of middle age followed the burgher to the threshold, and another negro, who had not yet reached the stature of manhood, bore under his arm a small bundle, that probably contained articles of the first necessity to the comfort of his master.
“Thrift, Mr. Euclid, thrift is your true philosopher’s stone”; commenced, or rather continued in a rich full-mouthed Dutch the proprietor of the dwelling, who had evidently been giving a leave-taking charge to his principal slave, before quitting the house — “Thrift hath made many a man rich, but it never yet brought any one to want. It is thrift which has built up the credit of my house, and, though it is said by myself, a broader back and firmer base belongs to no merchant in the colonies. You are but the reflection of your master’s prosperity, you rogue, and so much the greater need that you look to his interests. If the substance is wasted, what will become of the shadow! When I get delicate, you will sicken; when I am a-hungered, you will be famished; when I die, you may be — ahem — Euclid, I leave thee in charge of goods and chattels, house and stable, with my character in the neighbourhood. I am going to the Lust in Rust for a mouthful of better air. Plague and fevers! I believe the people will continue to come into this crowded town until it gets to be as pestilent as Rotterdam in the dog-days. You have now come to years when a man obtains his reflection, boy, and I expect suitable care and discretion about the premises, while my back is turned. Now, harke’e, sirrah: I am not entirely pleased with the character of thy company. It is not altogether as respectable as becomes the confidential servant of a man of a certain station in the world. There are thy two cousins, Brom and Kobus, who are no better than a couple of blackguards; and as for the English negro, Diomede — he is a devil’s imp! Thou hast the other locks at disposal, and,” drawing with visible reluctance the instrument from his pocket, “here is the key of the stable. Not a hoof is to quit it, but to go to the pump — and see that each animal has its food to a minute. The devil’s roysterers! a Manhattan negro takes a Flemish gelding for a gaunt hound, that is never out of breath, and away he goes, at night, scampering along the highways like a yankee witch switching through the air on a broomstick — but mark me, master Euclid, I have eyes in my head, as thou knowest by bitter experience! D’ye remember, rag-a-muffin, the time when I saw thee, from the Hague, riding the beasts, as if the devil spurred them, along the dykes of Leyden, without remorse as without leave?”
“I alway b’rieve some make-mischief tell Masser, dat time;” returned the negro sulkily, though not without doubt.
“His own eyes were the tell-tales. If Masters had no eyes, a pretty world would the negroes make of it! I have got the measure of every black heel, on the island, registered in the big book you see me so often looking into, especially on Sundays; and, if either of the tire-legs, I have named, dares to enter my grounds, let him expect to pay a visit to the city Prevost. What do the wild cats mean! Do they think that the geldings were bought in Holland, with charges for breaking-in, shipment, insurance, freight, and risk of diseases, to have their flesh melted from their ribs like a cook’s candle.”
“Ere no’tin’ done in all e island, but a colour’ man do him! He do a mischief, and he do all a work, too! I won’er what colour Masser t’ink war’ Capt. Kidd?”
“Black or white, he was a rank rogue; and you see the end he came to. I warrant you, now, that water-thief began his iniquities by riding the neighbours horses, at night. His fate should be a warning to every negro in the colony. The imps of darkness! The English have no such scarcity of rogues at home, that they could not spare us the pirate to hang up on one of the islands, as a scarecrow to the blacks of Manhattan.”
“Well, I t’ink ‘e sight do a white man some good, too”; returned Euclid, who had all the pertinacity of a spoiled Dutch negro, singularly blended with affection for him in whose service he had been born. “I hear ebbery body say, ‘er’e war’ but two colour’ man in he ship, and ‘em bot’ war’ Guinea born.”
“A modest tongue, thou midnight scamperer! look to my geldings — Here — here are two Dutch florins, three stivers, and a Spanish pistoreen for thee; one of the florins is for thy old mother, and with the others, thou canst lighten thy heart in the Paus merry-makings — if I hear that either of thy rascally cousins, or the English Diomede, has put a leg across beast of mine, it will be the worse for all Africa! Famine and skeletons! here have I been seven years trying to fatten the nags, and they still look more like weasels, than a pair of solid geldings.”
The close of this speech was rather muttered in the distance, and by way of soliloquy, than actually administered to the namesake of the great mathematician. The air of the negro had been a little equivocal, during the parting admonition. There was an evident struggle, in his mind, between an innate love of disobedience, and a secret dread of his master’s means of information. So long as the latter continued in sight, the black watched his form in doubt, and when it had turned a corner, he stood at gaze, for a moment, with a negro on a neighbouring stoop; then both shook their heads significantly, laughed aloud, and retired. That night, the confidential servant attended to the interests of his absent master, with a fidelity and care which proved he felt his own existence identified with that of a man who claimed so close a right in his person, and just as the clock struck ten, he and the negro last mentioned mounted the sluggish and over+fattened horses, and gallopped, as hard as foot could be laid to the earth, several miles deeper into the island, to attend a frolic at one of the usual haunts of the people of their colour and condition.
Had Alderman Myndert Van Beverout suspected the calamity which was so soon to succeed his absence, it is probable that his mien would have been less composed, as he pursued his way from his own door, on the occasion named. That he had confidence in the virtue of his menaces, however, may be inferred from the tranquillity which immediately took possession of features that were never disturbed, without wearing an appearance of unnatural effort. The substantial burgher was a little turned of fifty; and an English wag, who had imported from the mother country a love for the humour of his nation, had once, in a conflict of wits before the city council, described him to be a man of alliterations. When called upon to explain away this breach of parliamentary decorum, the punster had gotten rid of the matter, by describing his opponent to be “short, solid and sturdy, in stature; full, flushed and funny, in face, and proud, ponderous and pragmatical, in propensities.” But, as is usual, in all sayings of effort, there was more smartness than truth in this description; though, after making a trifling allowance for the colouring of political rivalry, the reader may receive its physical portion, as sufficiently descriptive to answer all the necessary purposes of this tale. If we add that he was a trader of great wealth and shrewdness, and a bachelor, we need say no more in this stage of the narrative.
Notwithstanding the early hour at which this industrious and flourishing merchant quitted his abode, his movement along the narrow streets of his native town was measured and dignified. More than once, he stopped to speak to some favorite family servant, invariably terminating his inquiries after the health of the master, by some facetious observation adapted to the habits and capacity of the slave. From this, it would seem, that, while he had so exaggerated notions of domestie discipline, the worthy burgher was far from being one who indulged, by inclination, in the menaces he has been heard to utter. He had just dismissed one of these loitering negroes, when, on turning a corner, a man of his own colour, for the first time that morning, suddenly stood before him. The startled citizen made an involuntary movement to avoid the unexpected interview, and then, perceiving the difficulty of such a step, he submitted, with as good a grace as if it had been one of his own seeking.
“The orb of day — the morning gun — and Mr. Alderman Van Beverout!” exclaimed the individual encountered. “Such is the order of events, at this early hour, on each successive revolution of our earth.”
The countenance of the Alderman had barely time to recover its composure, ere he was required to answer to this free and somewhat facetious salutation. Uncovering his head, he bowed so ceremoniously as to leave the other no reason to exult in his pleasantry, as he answered —
“The colony has reason to regret the services of a governor who can quit his bed so soon. That we of business habits stir betimes, is quite in reason, but there are those in this town, who would scarce believe their eyes did they enjoy my present happiness.”
“Sir, there are many in this colony who have great reason to distrust their senses, though none can be mistaken in believing they see Alderman Van Beverout in a well employed man. He that dealeth in the produce of the beaver must have the animal’s perseverance and forethought! Now, were I a King at Arms, there should be a concession made in thy favour, Myndert, of a shield bearing the animal mordant, a mantle of fur, with two Mohawk hunters for supporters, and the motto, ‘Industry’.”
“Or what think you, my Lord,” returned the other, who did not more than half relish the pleasantry of his companion, of a spotless shield for a clear conscience, with an open hand for a crest, and the motto, ‘Frugality and Justice’?”
“I like the open hand, though the conceit is pretending. I see you would intimate that the Van Beverouts have not need, at this late day, to search a herald’s office for honours. I remember, now I bethink me, on some occasion to have seen their bearings; a wind+mill, courant; dyke, coulant; field, vert, sprinkled with black cattle — No! then, memory is treacherous; the morning air is pregnant with food for the imagination!”
“Which is not a coin to satisfy a creditor, my Lord,” said the caustic Myndert.
“Therein has truth been, pithily, spoken. This is an ill-judged step, Alderman Van Beverout, that lets a gentleman out by night, like the ghost in Hamlet, to flee into the narrow house with the crowing of the cock. The ear of my royal cousin hath been poisoned, worse than was the ear of “murdered Denmark,” or the partisans of this Mister Hunter would have little cause to triumph.”
“Is it not possible to give such pledges to those who have turned the key, as will enable your lordship to apply the antidote.”
The question struck a chord that changed the whole manner of the other. His air, which had borne the character of a genteel trifler, became more grave and dignified, and notwithstanding there was the evidence of a reckless disposition in his features, dress and carriage, his tall and not ungraceful form as he walked slowly onward, by the side of the compact Alderman, was not without much of that insinuating ease and blandishment, that long familiarity with good company can give even to the lowest moral worth.
“Your question, worthy Sir, manifests great goodness of heart, and corroborates that reputation for generosity, the world so freely gives. It is true that the Queen has been persuaded to sign the mandate of my recal, and it is certain that Mr. Hunter has the government of the colony; but these are facts that might be reversed, were I once in a position to approach my kinswoman. I do not disclaim certain indiscretions, Sir; it would ill become me to deny them in presence of one whose virtue is as severe as that of Alderman Van Beverout. I have my failings; perhaps, as you have just been pleased to intimate, it would have been better had my motto been frugality, but the open hand, dear Sir, is a part of the design you will not deny me, either. If I have weaknesses, my enemies cannot refuse to say that I never yet deserted a friend.”
“Not having had occasion to tax your friendship, I shall not be the first to make the charge.”
“Your impartiality has come to be a proverb! ‘As honest as Alderman Van Beverout’; ‘as generous as Alderman Van Beverout’, are terms in each man’s mouth; some say ‘as rich;’ (the small blue eye of the burgher twinkled). “But honesty, and riches, and generosity are of little value, without influence. Men should have their natural consideration in society. Now is this colony rather Dutch than English, and yet, you see, how few names are found in the list of the Council, that have been known in the province half-a-century! Here are your Alexanders and Heathcotes; your Morris’s and Kennedies; de Lanceys and Livingstons filling the Council, and the Legislative halls, but we find few of the Van Rensselaers, Van Courtlandts, Van Schuylers, Stuyvesants, Van Beekmans and Van Beverouts in their natural stations. All nations and religions have precedency, in the royal favour, over the children of the Patriarchs. The Bohemian Felipses; the Hugenot de Lanceys, and Bayards, and Jays; the King-hating Morrisses and Ludlows — in short all have greater estimation in the eyes of government, than the most ancient Patroon!”
“This has long, and truly been the case. I cannot remember when it was otherwise!”
“It may not be denied. But it would little become political discretion to affect precipitancy in the judgment of character. If my own administration can be stigmatized with the same apparent prejudice, it proves the clearer how strong is misrepresentation at home. Time was wanting to enlighten my mind, and that time has been refused me. In another year, my worthy Sir, the council should have been filled with Van’s!”
“In such a case, my Lord, the unhappy condition in which you are now placed might indeed have been avoided.”
“Is it too late to arrest the evil? It is time Anne had been undeceived, and her mind regained. There wanteth nothing to such a consummation of justice, Sir, but opportunity. It touches me to the heart, to think that this disgrace should befal one so near the Royal blood! ‘Tis a spot on the escutcheon of the crown, that all loyal subjects must feel desirous to efface, and so small an effort would effect the object, too, with certain — Mr. Alderman Myndert Van Beverout — ?”
“My Lord, late Governor,” returned the other, observing that his companion hesitated.
“What think you of this Hanoverian settlement? — Shall a German wear the crown of a Plantagenet?”
“It hath been worn by a Hollander.”
“Aptly answered! Worn, and worn worthily! There is affinity between the people, and there is reason in that reply. How have I failed in wisdom, in not seeking earlier the aid of thy advice, excellent Sir! Ah, Myndert, there is a blessing on the enterprises of all who come of the Low Countries!”
“They are industrious to earn, and slow to squander.”
“That expenditure is the ruin of many a worthy subject! And yet accident — chance — fortune — or whatever you may choose to call it, interferes nefariously, at times, with a gentleman’s prosperity. I am an adorer of constancy in friendships, Sir, and hold the principle that men should aid each other through this dark vale of life — Mr. Alderman Van Beverout — ?”
“My Lord Cornbury.”
“I was about to say, that should I quit the Province, without expressing part of the regret I feel, at not having sooner ascertained the merits of its original owners, and your own in particular, I should do injustice to sensibilites, that are only too acute, for the peace of him who endures them.”
“Is there then hope that your lordship’s creditors will relent, or has the Earl furnished means to open the prison door?”
“You use the pleasantest terms, Sir! — but I love directness of language, above all other qualities. No doubt the prison door, as you have so clearly expressed it, might be opened, and lucky would be the man who should turn the key. I am pained when I think of the displeasure of the Queen, which sooner or later, will surely visit my luckless persecutors. On the other hand, I find relief in thinking of the favour she will extend to those who have proved my friends, in such a strait. They that wear crowns love not to see disgrace befal the meanest of their blood, for something of the taint may sully even the ermine of Majesty. — Mr. Alderman — ?”
“ — How fare the Flemish geldings?”
“Bravely, and many thanks, my Lord; the rogues are fat as butter! There is hope of a little rest, for the innocents, since business calls me to the Lust in Rust. There should be a law Lord Governor, to gibbet the black that rides a beast at night.”
“I bethought me of some condign punishment for so heartless a crime, but there is little hope for it under the administration of this Mr. Hunter. Yes, Sir; were I once more in the presence of my royal cousin, there would quickly be an end to this delusion, and the colony should be once more restored to a healthful state. The men of a generation should cease to lord it over the men of a century. But we must be wary of letting our design, my dear Sir, get wind; it is a truly Dutch idea, and the profits, both pecuniary and political, should belong to the gentlemen of that descent — My dear Van Beverout — ?”
“My good Lord?”
“Is the blooming Alida obedient? Trust me, there has no family event occurred, during my residence in the colony, in which I have taken a nearer interest, than in that desirable connexion. The wooing of the young Patroon of Kinderhook is an affair of concern to the province. It is a meritorious youth!”
“With an excellent estate, my Lord!”
“And a gravity beyond his years.”
“I would give a guaranty, at a risk, that two thirds of his income goes to increase the capital, at the beginning of each season!”
“He seems a man to live on air!”
“My old friend, the last Patroon, left noble assets,” continued the Alderman, rubbing his hands; “besides the manor.”
“Which is no paddock?”
“It reaches from the Hudson to the line of Massachusetts. A hundred thousand acres of hill and bottom, and well peopled by frugal Hollanders.”
“Respectable in possession, and a mine of gold in reversion! Such men, Sir, should be cherished. We owe it to his station to admit him to a share of this, our project to undeceive the Queen. How superior are the claims of such a gentleman to the empty pretensions of your Capt. Ludlow!”
“He has truly a very good and an improving estate!”
“These Ludlows, Sir, people that fled the realm for plotting against the crown, are offensive to a loyal subject. Indeed, too much of this objection may be imputed to many in the province, that come of English blood. I am sorry to say, that they are fomentors of discord, disturbers of the public mind, and captious disputants about prerogatives and vested rights. But there is a repose in the Dutch character which lends it dignity! The descendants of the Hollanders are men to be counted on; where we leave them to-day, we see them to-morrow. As we say in politics, Sir, we know where to find them. Does it not seem to you particularly offensive that this Capt. Ludlow should command the only royal cruiser on the station?”
“I should like it better, my Lord, were he to serve in Europe,” returned the Alderman glancing a look behind him, and lowering his voice. “There was lately a rumour that his ship was in truth to be sent among the islands.”
“Matters are getting very wrong, most worthy Sir, and the greater the necessity there should be one at court to undeceive the Queen. Innovators should be made to give way to men whose names are historical, in the colony.”
“’Twould be no worse for her Majesty’s credit.”
“’Twould be another jewel in her crown! Should this Capt. Ludlow actually marry your niece, the family would altogether change its character — I have the worst memory — thy mother, Myndert, was a — a — “
“The pious woman was a Van Busser.”
“The union of thy sister with the Huguonot then reduces the fair Alida to the quality of a half-blood. The Ludlow connexion would destroy the leaven of the race! I think the man is pennyless!”
“I cannot say that, my Lord, for I would not willingly injure the credit of my worst enemy; but though wealthy, he is far from having the estate of the young Patroon of Kinderhook.”
“He should indeed be sent into the Indies — Myndert — ?”
“It would be unjust to my sentiments in favor of Mr. Oloff Van Staats were we to exclude him from the advantages of our project. This much shall I exact from your friendship, in his favor; the necessary sum may be divided in moieties, between you, a common bond shall render the affair compact, and then, as we shall be masters of our own secret, there can be little doubt of the prudence of our measures. The amount is written in this bit of paper.”
“Two thousand pounds, my Lord!”
“Pardon me, dear Sir; not a penny more than one for each of you. Justice to Van Staats requires that you let him into the affair. Were it not for the suit with your niece, I should take the young gentleman with me, to push his fortunes at court.”
“Truly, my Lord, this greatly exceeds my means. The high prices of furs the past season, and delays in returns have placed a seal upon our silver — “
“The premium would be high.”
“Coin is getting so scarce, daily, that the face of a Carolus is almost as great a stranger, as the face of a debtor — “
“The returns certain.”
“While one’s creditors meet him, at every corner — “
“The concern would be altogether Dutch.”
“And last advices, from Holland, tell us to reserve our gold, for some extraordinary movements in the commercial world.”
“Mr. Alderman Myndert Van Beverout!”
“My Lord Viscount Cornbury. — “
“Plutus preserve thee, Sir — but have a care! though I scent the morning air, and must return, it is not forbid to tell the secrets of my prison-house. There is one, in yonder cage, who whispers that the ‘Skimmer of the Seas’ is on the coast! Be wary, worthy burgher, or the second part of the tragedy of Kidd, may yet be enacted in these seas.”
“I leave such transactions to my superiors,” retorted the Alderman, with another stiff and ceremonious bow. “Enterprises that are said to have occupied the Earl of Bellamont, Gov. Fletcher, and my lord Cornbury, are above the ambition of a humble merchant.”
“Adieu, tenacious Sir; quiet thine impatience for the extraordinary Dutch movements!” said Cornbury, affecting to laugh, though he secretly felt the sting the other had applied, since common report implicated not only him, but his two official predecessors, in several of the lawless proceedings of the American Buccaneers: “Be vigilant, or la demoiselle Barbèrie will give another cross to the purity of the stagnant pool!”
The bows that were exchanged were strictly in character. The Alderman was unmoved, rigid and formal, while his companion could not forget his ease of manner, even at a moment of so much vexation. Foiled in an effort, that nothing but his desperate condition and nearly desperate character, could have induced him to attempt, the degenerate descendant of the virtuous Clarendon walked towards his place of confinement, with the step of one who assumed a superiority over his fellows, and yet with a mind so indurated by habitual depravity, as to have left it scarcely the trace of a dignified, or virtuous quality.