The Monikins (1835)

Warren S. Walker (Texas Tech University)

Originally published in Warren S. Walker, Plots and Characters in the Fiction of James Fenimore Cooper (Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1978), pp. 119-130.

Copyright © 1978 by Warren S. Walker.  Placed online with the kind permission of Warren S. Walker, and of Shoe String Press, Inc.

[May be reproduced for instructional use by individuals or institutions; commercial use prohibited.]

Chapter numbers [in square brackets] have been inserted by the webmaster at approximately the point where each chapter begins, to facilitate locating particular plot incidents in the text.

— Hugh C. MacDougall

Described in the introduction as a manuscript sent to the author in Geneva, Switzerland, by a Viscount Householder in gratitude for the author’s having saved the Viscount’s beautiful wife from accidental death, this novel uses the framework of a south-polar voyage to two unknown countries, Leaphigh [markedly similar in its institutions to England] and Leaplow [singularly like the United States in its principles and practices], to satirize the social, political, and judicial systems of the two Western countries. The “voyage” appears to have been imaginary, the product of the manuscript writer’s delirium during an illness in Paris, but the points made are indelible ones. The first-person narrative device [in the voice of John Goldencalf, Viscount of Householder] adds verisimilitude to the account.

[1] The narrator initially traces his ancestry, one known generation on his father’s side and two known generations on his mother’s side. His father, a foundling discovered in the late eighteenth century by a London orange seller and named Thomas Goldencalf after a sign outside a nearby butcher shop, was very early apprenticed to the bachelor owner of a prosperous variety shop. Proving an apt learner, Thomas won his master’s favor, assumed and magnified his master’s mercenary tactics, and on his master’s death was made executor of the merchant’s substantial estate and guardian of his adopted infant foundling daughter, Betsey, sole heiress of the estate and thirty years Thomas’s junior. Ostensibly to protect his ward from unscrupulous suitors, Thomas married Betsey himself when she had reached eighteen years of age and had inherited £400,000. This union, of fourteen years’ duration, produced five children, among whom only the fifth — John Goldencalf, the narrator — survived infancy. [2] His mother, dying shortly after John’s birth, exacted from Thomas Goldencalf the promise that he would entrust the rector, Dr. Etherington, with the care and upbringing of their child and that he would provide for the education of two poor but worthy scholars — at a total cost of £10,000 — a promise reluctantly given and even more reluctantly kept by the mercenary Thomas Goldencalf. (By dint of clever management, Thomas almost doubled the amount of Betsey’s inheritance by the time of her death.)

[3] At the age of twenty, John Goldencalf has completed his schooling at Eton and at Oxford, with his vacations spent happily at the rectory with Etherington and his lovely daughter, Anna. [4] Stung by his exclusion from a birthday party attended by Anna and given by the son of the baronet Sir Harry Griffin — on the grounds that John is the son of an untitled stockbroker rather than a member of the landed gentry — John comes to recognize the advantage of social rank, a distinction scorned by his father but respected by the rector. On Thomas Goldencalf’s death, at the age of seventy-five, John inherits all his father’s property and is made sole executor of the will, to the disappointment and despair of a score of his father’s false friends. [5] Shortly after the prompt settlement of his father’s estate, John leaves London for the countryside to ponder his proper conduct, well aware of his late father’s monetary wealth but spiritual poverty (his final cry on his deathbed was “gold — gold!”) and consequently unpromising eternal prospects. Halting overnight at an inn in the borough of Householder, John hears an impassioned election-campaign speech by Sir Pledge and, moved by the stake-in-society principle expressed in that newly appointed government minister’s address, he purchases the independent borough of Householder and promises its support for the reelection of Sir Pledge. In an ensuing conversation with the grateful candidate, John mentions his regret at his own lack of social rank; Sir Pledge, true to his promise to attend to the matter, arranges John’s elevation to the rank of baronet. John’s return to the rectory provides an opportunity for his declaration of love for Anna, a suit his beautiful lifelong comrade alternately encourages and discourages. John, unaware of the depth of Anna’s real affection for him but deeply aware of what he considers his obligations to mankind, determines to travel for a year or two, and takes affectionate farewell of the rector and Anna. His sole aim, he explains to the reader, is “a life of useful and active benevolence, a deathbed of hope and joy, and an eternity of fruition” (p. 81).

[6] To effect the end of establishing stakes in society everywhere and thus enlarging his compassion for mankind, John invests vast sums from his fortune in real estate in all parts of Great Britain and in many portions of its far-flung Empire; he hires agents to manage a wide range of business enterprises around the world, convinced that he who has social stakes will be better able to administer wisely the interests of his fellow citizens. Thus allying his own interests with those of others, he sets out to examine personally his many enterprises, and returns with firm confidence in the stake-in-society principle but painfully aware of weaknesses lurking in it if it is misapplied. Arriving in Paris in 1819, he encounters a neighbor of the Etheringtons who informs him Anna has just refused the hand of a highly eligible young peer. John, with his hopes for Anna’s love renewed, writes her an amorous letter indicating that his travel is merely strengthening his susceptibility to her charms. Her eagerly anticipated response, a cryptic note, dashes his hopes and arouses his jealousy: she proposes to expand her own affections and thus prepare herself to be a more worthy wife for a man whose affections embrace the whole world!

Endeavoring to regain his composure, John walks hither and yon for many hours, not even pausing to eat. The following morning, still distraught, he breakfasts at a street café, where he encounters a Connecticut seaman, Captain Noah Poke, whose open manner and common-sense comments arouse his interest. [7] Poke, early orphaned, and sent to sea at the age of four, has traveled widely, but — having lost his vessel, the Debby and Dolly of Stunin’ton [Stonington], by shipwreck on the coast of Russia — is now penniless and seeking means for a new venture. After a thorough canvass of one another’s backgrounds and experiences, Goldencalf and Poke agree to undertake an expedition together, outfitted by Sir John and captained by Poke, to test in new territories the merits of the baronet’s stake-in-society principle. [8] En route to John’s quarters, the men see two ragged, gypsylike Savoyards and their four costumed monkeys. Sensing an audience, the Savoyards put the monkeys through their tricks, a performance that serves to align John’s sympathies with the abused animals, of which one appears to be considerably more sensible than its tattered masters. Aware that he has not yet invested in quadrupeds and therefore does not share their concerns, John buys the monkeys from their exhibitors; he and Captain Poke take the compliant primates to John’s hotel.

Once there, John gives the hotel personnel directions for the proper care both of Poke and of the monkeys, and then settles down to read his mail. Each letter, from one quarter of the globe or another, represents one of Goldencalf’s “stakes in society” and prompts a cogent letter to the appropriate British minister or business representative or member of Parliament, letters intended to effect correction of the situations of which John’s agents have sent reports. [His own financial involvement in the various enterprises causes John to bend truth and principle to suit each situation in turn, a basic defect in his stake-in-society proposition of which he is ingenuously unaware.] His correspondence finally completed to his satisfaction, John looks in on the four monkeys — well fed and sound asleep in the anteroom — and then goes to his own bed, where a confusion of images causes great difficulty in his settling into sleep.

[9] The following morning, John awakens in a state of reverie. Overhearing a quiet but earnest conversation in the anteroom in a language that he is unable to identify, he enters the anteroom and addresses the only occupants, the monkeys, in French; the apparent leader of the four monkeys responds in flawless French. In answer to Sir John’s self-introduction, the speaker introduces the younger male as Lord Chatterino, the younger female as Lady Chatterissa, her duenna as Mistress Vigilance Lynx, and himself as Dr. Reasono, philosopher, the traveling tutor of Lord Chatterino; the young lord is heir of one of the most ancient and illustrious families of the kingdom of Leaphigh, in the monkey (monikin) territory. Intrigued by the grave monikin philosopher, John questions him about Leaphigh and discovers the cause of the ladies’ embarrassment in his presence: monikins prefer the unclothed state. To make his visitors more comfortable, John returns to his room and removes all but his slippers and nightcap! The more John learns about Leaphigh, the more eager he becomes to have his new comrade, Captain Poke, hear about the interesting features of monikin culture. [10] With the monikin philosopher’s permission, John dresses himself sufficiently to order breakfast for his guests and to fetch Poke to attend Dr. Reasono’s promised lecture. Poke’s resistance to discarding his clothes just to hear a lecture by a monkey is discreetly overcome by their allowing him to wear a bison-skin, a natural garment in John’s possession; John himself, subject to colds, avails himself of a similar garment. After a guarded but heated argument between the monikins and the humans on certain matters of protocol governing the lecture, [11-12] Dr. Reasono begins his learned comments on the philosophical, scientific, political, social, and historical aspects of monikin civilization [a lecture that continues throughout two chapters of the novel].

Interrupted occasionally, as agreed beforehand, by questions or demurrals from John and from Poke, the grave philosopher outlines the monikin classifications of elements, vegetation, and animals (listing humans above sponges but below monikins), explains the monikins’ stress on the tail as the seat of reason, accounts for the revolution of the earth and the development of the salubrious steam-heated environment of monikin territory at the south pole (an environment once threatened by ill-advised capping of the steam vent but restored by an eruption that carried away the perpetrators of the mischief and forty thousand square miles of monikin territory), expounds the monikin theory of the evolution of species, and hints at other subjects too vast to be explored by other than an actual visit to monikin territory. Then, well aware of John’s eagerness to learn further details of monikin philosophy, Dr. Reasono proposes that Sir John, being wealthy, provide a suitable ship, navigated by Captain Poke — half of whose life has been spent sailing in the south-polar regions in quest of seals — to carry the monikins home and there to see for himself the blessings of a superior society, one in which he might well be happy to have a stake. [13] At length, John persuades Poke to undertake such a voyage; and the two men and the monikins forthwith journey to England and arrange for a suitable vessel, the Walrus, for the polar expedition, on which they subsequently set sail.

Captain Poke proves an excellent mariner, and the crew members amiably accept as clothing the animal skins which John provides for them in view of the monikins’ aversion to human dress. As the Walrus approaches the south-polar area, Poke constructs a globe of a peeled pumpkin, outlines the principal land masses, and has Dr. Reasono locate the island of Leaphigh, as well as Captivity Island — the island on which he and the other three were captured by sealers, and subsequently sold first to an Indiaman and then to the Savoyards at a handsome profit. [14] With this guide as a chart, Poke continues sailing confidently southward. As the Walrus arrives among mountainous icebergs, he navigates so expertly that — despite Dr. Reasono’s error in the location of Captivity Island — the ship slips through one channel after another, with the ice closing in immediately behind the vessel. When field ice is encountered, Poke orders the ship hove to, and the entire crew works to attach to the Walrus an outer skeleton of beams prefabricated precisely to protect the ship from the crush of the ice. Shielded thus, the ship works its way to the clear waters marking the edge of the monikins’ domain, comfortably steam heated; the humans shed their animal skins for cooler dress fashioned to resemble the discarded pelts. In due course, the Walrus arrives in the harbor of the city of Aggregation.

[15] The port officers, intent on placing the monikins’ customary brand — personal identifying color and number — on the seats of the human visitors, are persuaded by John’s discreet bribe to allow the numbers to be painted instead of burned. Safely home again, Lord Chatterino, Lady Chatterissa, and Mistress Vigilance Lynx are utterly scornful of their human benefactors; members of the nobility in Leaphigh, they and their friends mock the humans and the cultures from which they come. [16] Even Dr. Reasono, although he appears friendly, shows a lofty disregard for the truth regarding the circumstances of the four monikins’ safe return to their homeland, turning every development in the whole affair to the advantage of the monikins. He reports to the learned academy that while he and Mistress Vigilance Lynx were guiding Lord Chatterino and Lady Chatterissa on the Journey of Trial required before their marriage, he encountered a party of sealers and, desirous of exposing his young charges to human society and of bringing back to the academy information of immense scientific and philosophical value, he engaged the sealing vessel to transport the monikin party northward. Finding that vessel’s accommodations inadequate, he transferred the party to a better ship, which landed at the island of St. Helena, an island Dr. Reasono is convinced had been formed by portions of the land carried away by the south-polar eruption; to prove this point, the speaker presents several rocks obtained there — clearly of the same mineralogical content as that of a mountain near Aggregation. He also describes the monkeys with whom he talked on St. Helena, obviously of monikin origin but with intellects sadly blunted by their ancestors’ fearsome concussion during the eruption and by the viscissitudes of climate; these monkeys, he suggests, would undoubtedly prove of economic importance if imported in large quantities into Leaphigh as domestic servants. Arriving shortly thereafter in Portugal, he engaged two Savoyards as guides for their party for a tour he proposed of Europe; a full report of the momentous discoveries made during that tour is promised by Dr. Reasono for delivery at a later date. Feeling the obligation of returning to Leaphigh with Lord Chatterino and Lady Chatterissa, he reluctantly terminated their travel in Great Britain, where he engaged a vessel to transport the party to monikin territory. At the request of the king of England, he included the Prince Royal, and at the urging of the British Lord High Admiral, that dignitary was allowed to take command of the expedition.

Finishing his formal address, Dr. Reasono presents Bob Smut, the Walrus’s cabin boy, as Prince Royal, Poke as Lord High Admiral, and Goldencalf as traveling tutor and personal attendant of the Prince Royal! For his singular services, Dr. Reasono is awarded the titles of F.U.D.G.E. and H.O.A.X. John finds no support among his own men, all elated with their elevation in rank and importance; even Poke, though sympathetic, has little time to waste on the Prince Royal’s attendant. [17] Stung by this reversal in fortunes, John is greeted as Sir John Goldencalf by Judas People’s Friend, envoy-extraordinary and minister-plenipotentiary of the republic of Leaplow to the kingdom of Leaphigh. People*s Friend appears to know all about Sir John and his discomfiture, and invites him to sup with him and his attendant, Brigadier Aaron Downright. During the meal at the inn, paid f promises — the currency of Leaphigh — John and his new friends discuss the salient features of Leaplow, an offshoot of Leaphigh that was established on purely republican principles. In a lengthy chapter, People’s Friend bares many interesting facts about Leaplow: The docked tails of the Leaplowers indicate the republic’s disdain for an aristocracy based on intellect. Their conducting of elections by pure chance and their limiting of offices to a year’s duration avoid the danger of corruption. Proper deference to public opinion is expected, though in Leaplow there are two separate and equally accepted public opinions. The newspapers are supplied with the intelligence extracted from all the cropped tail portions in order to represent the average sense of the citizens. [In the details given of Leaphigh and of Leaplow throughout the novel, the author allegorically satirizes the characteristics of Great Britain and of the United States respectively, much in the manner of Swift’s Lilliputian portion of Gulliver’s Travels. For example, in Leaplow one demonstrates patriotism and political astuteness by the finesse with which one executes fixed gymnastic feats (including complete reversals of position) while still managing to “toe the line.”]

John, eagerly pursuing the features of Leaplow’s political philosophy, is summoned — with People’s Friend and Downright — to witness the wedding of Lord Chatterino and Lady Chatterissa. [18] Attired in “formal dress” — i.e., wearing an oxtail borrowed for him by Dr. Reasono from the cabinet of natural history — John goes with Poke, similarly decked, to an elaborate reception at which Bob, now Prince Royal, affronts John by naming Jack Coppers, Negro cook aboard the Walrus, as the member of the human party most useful in getting the Walrus to Leaphigh, whereupon Jack is duly knighted. [19] Before and after the wedding, John is provided both by Downright and by the distinguished Archbishop of Leaphigh with extensive information about religious patterns and practices among the monikins; Downright continues the account during a private supper following the wedding, appending to each description of a patently absurd detail [reflecting a recognizably human foible, also] the comment “[N]o doubt, men manage better” (p. 294).

Captain Poke having committed during the wedding reception two serious crimes — one by stating that the king of Leaphigh has a memory and the other by stating that the queen of Leaphigh lacks a memory — is placed on trial before the High Criminal Court of Leaphigh. [20] Defended by John Goldencalf and Brigadier Downright as next of kin (the former hastily adopted as mother and the latter as father to meet the legal requirements), Poke is immediately at the mercy of a court that violates every accepted principle of justice, including a highly prejudicial charge to the jury by the chief justice on each of the two counts. [21] Instantly found guilty on both counts and condemned to amputation of his tail and to beheading for the respective crimes, Poke is counseled by Downright (actually an attorney in Leaplow) to submit to decaudalization while Downright manages to extricate him from punishment by beheading. Promptly upon the report of Poke’s decaudalization, Downright declares his client, now non compos mentis [by virtue of the reason’s having resided in the tail], entitled to release from punishment for the second charge, and the attorney’s claim is honored. Poke, thus spared execution, hastens to the Walrus. [22] John thanks Downright for his staunch support and then makes the necessary arrangements for leaving Leaphigh to visit Leaplow, accompanied by People’s Friend and Downright. While People’s Friend secures a reliable chargé d’affaires (a disguised Leaplower) as his replacement and instructs him fully on his duties [in an exceedingly ironic passage, pp. 326-328] and then takes care to preserve his removable tail in pepper for possible later use, John, Poke, Downright, and Jack Coppers seek cargo for the Walrus. Downright recommends the buying of “opinions,” available in quantity at a certain shop, and extensive purchases are made according to Downright’s judgment of their likelihood of a brisk market in Leaplow. By the time the Negro cook is offered his choice, the shop’s shelves are almost bare; the shopkeeper sells him at half price a packet labeled “Distinctive Opinions of the Republic of Leaplow,” though Downright doubts that they will sell any better in Leaplow than they have in Leaphigh. In short order, all are aboard, including the cabin boy, whom Poke kicks to his heart’s content for his effrontery; then sail is set for Leaplow.

[23-24] Barely outside Leaphigh’s territorial waters, the Walrus is boarded by Leaplowers, who test each one aboard with a given set of shibboleths and naturalize as citizens of Leaplow all except the second mate, who pronounces “altar” “halter.” In rapid succession as the ship approaches Leaplow, nominating committees from the three political parties in Leaplow come aboard and enlist legislative candidates: Goldencalf for the Horizontals, Poke for the Perpendiculars, and Bob Smut (unbeknownst to Poke) for the Tangents. Inquiry by John reveals that the only requirements for voting in Leaplow are that one be alive and that he want something; possession of property — or a “social stake” — is considered a distinct liability in effecting sound government.

Bivouac, the harbor city, boasts a Wide-path [Broadway] and houses which tower over the government buildings, in conformity with the principle that government is the servant of the people. The visitors soon discover that other than entirely favorable comments by outsiders on fixed objects such as houses, streets, and public buildings, poor though they may appear to be, are fiercely resented; on the other hand, slurs and aspersions may be freely cast at the residents themselves. The visitors’ opinions respecting the place and the residents are immediately sought by a social pretender named Gilded Wriggle; Wriggle and his kind are loathed by Downright and his solid fellow citizens.

[25-26] John and Poke diligently study the Leaplow constitution, and brief themselves and each other on their responsibilities as elected representatives. John admires the logic of the balance of powers among the Great Sachem, the Riddles, and the Bobees (of which body he is to be a member). As for Poke, he is equally bemused by the “allegory” of the balance of powers and by the agility required to execute gyration No. 3 of the gymnastics required of politicians. (They have succeeded in selling all the “opinions” they had bought in Leaphigh, with the cook’s half-price purchase proving in the end most lucrative, as those opinions of Leaplow had been procured abroad!) The first legislative matter debated, “Resolved, that the color which has hitherto been deemed to be black, is really white” (p. 381), engages Poke for the Perpendiculars, John for the Horizontals, and Bob Smut for the Tangents. By means of cunning reasoning and innuendo, the upstart Bob succeeds in amending the resolution to read “Resolved, that the color which has hitherto been deemed to be black, is really lead-color“ (p. 390). In the course of the debate, John discovers that the one document considered far too sacred to quote is the national constitution! The second matter, concerning reparations to be paid by another nation, Leapthrough, for destruction of 126 Leaplow ships sixty-three years previously, is finally settled by a humanitarian who, envisioning war as the outcome of each of the four solutions previously proposed, recommends that no legislative action at all be taken; his recommendation passes unanimously. John, discovering that the humanitarian has a real-estate development that will be ruined if war occurs, recognizes this ploy as an outgrowth of the social-stake principle, apparently at work in Leaplow.

[27] Shortly after the legislature adjourns, Downright shows John and Poke a pamphlet from Leaphigh predicting to the day, hour, minute, and second a nine-year moral eclipse in Leaplow, a period in which moral principle will be overshadowed by selfish monetary interest. As John, Poke, and Downright discuss the implications of such an eclipse for the moral welfare of the monikins, John hears some plain talk from Downright about the fallacies of the social-stake system that proves only too true during the succeeding days. Those who were previously generous toward others and concerned for others’ welfare become more and more self-centered, grasping, and devoted to the almighty dollar; principle is indeed eclipsed by interest. [28] The legislative scene quickly reflects the change in emphasis, with harsh criticism directed against those who vote or speak without a declared personal motive; disinterested concern for public welfare is held highly suspect. Property fever rages among the monikins as it has been known to rage among men in England. The old standards of virtue give way to respect for cunning, deviousness, and trickery. Captain Poke, a man for whom thinking and reasoning on legislative matters becomes daily more difficult as he subsists on acorns, the Leaplowers’ fare, rather than the pork to which he has long been accustomed, adopts the practice of many of his colleagues in taking his political guidelines from a “God-like” [sic]; the one occasion thereafter on which he votes according to his own conscience forces his resignation as a legislator, for he is accused of the basest of behaviors: voting according to principle, without a sign of vested interest. [29] Judas People’s Friend, who shocks John and Poke by tripping in his political gymnastics and consequently being shaved of all his hair and deprived of all but the merest stump of a tail, is, on the contrary, most optimistic when he looks most desolate: in Leaplow, he says, humility is everything as a means to promotion, and if he accounts himself as unworthy of even the lowest post, he can be assured of speedy appointment to a high one.

Such a confused state of affairs prompts John to further philosophical inquiry; but it leads Poke to think of more basic things, such as good roast pork. John returns to the quarters he shares with Poke to discover the appetizing scent of roasted meat; the man in him overcoming his respect for monikin abstention from meat, he accepts Poke’s invitation and eats both flesh and bones. As he is looking around for more to eat, he sees a reproachful gaze, and suspicion grows in him: Poke has cooked and eaten Brigadier Downright, and he — John Goldencalf — has been party to the crime! In horror and indignation, John grasps Poke’s throat to force him to disgorge the meat of their friend and rescuer. In turn, Poke throttles John in an effort at self-preservation, and John begins to feel faint and dizzy.

Little by little, his senses clear; he finds himself not in his lodgings in Bivouac but in his Paris hotel quarters. As he looks around, he finds all as he had left it on going to London to buy the Walrus for the polar voyage, with three significant exceptions: on a table lie many closely written sheets containing the account of the voyage and the visits to Leaphigh and Leaplow; on the floor lies a small ship, accurately rigged, named the Walrus; in the air there is a pervasive odor of roasted meat. Peering over the top of a trunk is the head of Dr. Reasono, still firmly fastened to the shoulders, with its owner still clad in his street-performance costume. Voices outside the room catch his attention, but the language spoken is not that of the monikins. In a moment, Dr. Etherington is standing in the doorway, relieved to be recognized, and full of apologies for causing such distress by his unkind letter — the letter Anna had indeed penned, but at her father’s dictation.

John, aware now that his only really meaningful “social stake” is Anna Etherington, is told by the rector that he can see her on the morrow. As for Poke, he has been a faithful nurse to John, says the rector, and deserves nothing less than free passage home. John assures the stout-hearted Captain Poke that a ship will be fitted out to replace the lost Debby and Dolly, with its owner Captain Poke and its immediate destination Poke’s beloved Stunin’ton. The four monkeys, clearly uncommon specimens, will be well provided for, as well. But Poke shows a curious disinclination to talk about the adventures he and John had shared, saying only that he has grown to know Anna very well during the “voyage” and counseling John not to talk about the “voyage” overmuch, especially to Anna.

[30] John’s reunion with Anna the following day is an emotional and satisfying one for both. Anna has repented a thousand times about the letter [presumably the cause of John’s indisposition], and she eagerly returns John’s repeated declarations of love. In no uncertain terms, John declares that he is abandoning all social stakes around the world, having learned that they are not at all as important as he had thought. Acting promptly on this declaration, John sells all his foreign investments — at a handsome profit — and buys, instead, three more boroughs. Shortly thereafter, Lord Pledge exercises his influence to have John elevated to the rank of viscount; John Goldencalf, Viscount Householder, thus becomes a peer of the realm. Meanwhile, John buys a residence overlooking St. James’s Park, a location pleasing to Anna, and he and Anna are married.

[31] Though the voyage — apparently only a product of delirium [recorded by whom, the author does not say] — is rarely mentioned between John and his beloved wife, even ten years later John is digesting and sharing with his colleagues the useful conclusions drawn from his experiences among the monikins. These conclusions he shares with the reader as a fitting climax to this allegorical sociopolitical novel.

Archbishop of Leaphigh, Lord Chatterino, Lady Chatterissa, Jack Coppers, Brigadier Aaron Downright, Rev. Dr. Etherington, Anna Etherington, Francis, John Goldencalf, Hightail, Sir Joseph Job, Baron Longbeard, Vigilance Lynx, Miss-Mrs. [sic) Norton, Judas People’s Friend, Lord Pledge, Captain Noah Poke, Dr. Socrates Reasono, Bob Smut, Gilded Wriggle.